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Midterm 2 Review Sheet.docx

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 241
Barbara Butler

Midterm 2 BIOL-120 Lectures 8-15 Chapter 4: Roots Stems and Leaves: the Primary Plant Body Roots Key Functions: Water absorption, Mineral absorption, Anchor • also produce horomone, secondary metabolites, regulate growth, storage. Taproot Fibrous Root -Dicots and Gymnopserms - SVP’s and Monocots -One long root develop from radical -Adventitious roots arise from stem, not radicle (dies) -Can branch extensively -Allows to absorb water before evaporates -Good for plants that grow each year or need - one growing season water in dry areas. -stabilize soil Root Structure: • Grows from tip down in “retrograde” manner (matures up but penetrates down)  Root apical meristem Quiescent Centre  Initials  Initials divide slowly and are totipotent  One stays initial one becomes derivative  If damaged, few initials can regenerate plant  Derrivatives  primary meristem  Zone of Cell Division: RAM and Primary Meristem  Zone of Elongation: Derrivatives begin to elongate  Zone of Maturation: Where derivatives specialize • Root hairs begin here.  Root Cap • Protect meristem, produce mucigel, has gravity sensing starch (amyloplast)  Root Hair • Main area of absorption • Die as maturation zone gets deeper, and new develop  Ground and Vascular Tissue • Stele: Central cylinder of root • Protostele: Most common type of stele Dicot and Gymno Monocot and SVP Lobed xylem with Circular xylem then phloem phloem around surrounding parenchyma • Pericycle: Immediately surrounds protostele, made or meristematic cells o Divide further to produce lateral roots • Endodermis: Casparian strips regulate substances between vasculature and cortex o Composed of suberin and lignin o Forces minerals through semi-permeable membrane (apoplastic) o Comes from cortex cells (Ground tissue) Aerial roots -Roots arising from stems -Common in epiphytes (plants that rely on other plants for support) -Orchids Buttress Roots -Flared roots from tree trunks Contractile Roots -Shorten to further anchor plant Pneumatophores -Provide oxygen when it is lacking (air roots) - swamps Haustoria -Parasitic roots (plants that rely on others for nutrients) Mutualistic -Ectomycorrhizae  fungi penetrate and make arbuscules (Mycorrhizae) -Endomycorrhizae  Fungi produce sheath called mantle Chapter 3: Plant Structure Parenchyma: Living, differentiated, Chlorenchyma (photosynthetic), most abundant Collenchyma: Flexible support, alive, thicker primary cell wall cellulose, turgid Sclerenchyma: Secondary walls, lignin and rigid support, Dead, - Fibres: elongated with lignin (flexible and strong) - Sclerids: Rock hard, stone-cells, in pears Dermal Tissue (simple) Ground Tissue (Simple) Vascular Tissue (Complex) -1 year growth = epidermis -everything but dermal and vascular -Xylem: Water and mineral - sap -2 year growth = periderm (cork) -Carry out photosynthesis and -Phloem: sugar and nutrients – sap -Trichomes = modified hairs storage Xylem: -Cuticle = waxy modified dermal -Forms Cortex (b/w dermal and -Tracheids – dead like sclerenchyma vascular) -pits in secondary wall -Forms Pith (within protosteele) -Middle pit (torus) blocks flow Vessels – Dead like scler. -Larger with perforated plates for apical transport and pits for lateral Phloem: -Sieve tubes alive at maturity - specialized parenchyma -depends on companion cell - when damaged callose and p- protein - continuous membrane -Sieve cells (non flowering) – overlap, have albuminous cell -Phloem contains parenchyma and fibres Chapter 10: Plant Reproduction Embyrogenesis: All tissue types arise during Embryogenesis • Radicle = Embryonic root • Cotelydon = Embryonic leaf • Plumule = Embryonic shoot • Epicotyl = embryonic stem above cotelydon RAM and SAM  Indeterminate growth (continue to grow as long as alive) Stem and Leaves = Shoot Function of stem: Move leaves into light, support plant, allow for transport Nodes: Where leaves attatch to stem Internode: Place between leaves SAM • Cell Layer 1 and 2 = Tunica • Cell Layer 3 = Curpus • Intercalary meristem = rapid growth at internodes • Tillers = all shoots after initial parent shoot (from auxillary bud on petiole) Vasculature • Shoots and roots connect in early development • From Protostele of roots  vascular bundles • Vascular tissue arranged in veins
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