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Study Guide

[BIOL 273] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (29 pages long)Premium

29 pages231 viewsWinter 2016

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL273
Professor
Vivian Dayeh
Study Guide
Final

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UW
BIOL 273
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Membrane Receptor Categories
Receptor-channel: binding of the ligand will either open or close the channel
Receptor-enzyme: the binding of the ligand will activate an intracellular
enzyme
G-protein coupled receptor: binding of the ligand either opens an ion channel
or alters enzyme activity
oGPCRs cross the membrane 7 times, and the cytoplasmic end of the
membrane receptor is bound to a transducer called a G protein (3
parts)
oTypes of ligands that bind to GPCRs are hormones, growth factors,
olfactory molecules, visual pigments and neurotransmitters
oHow they work with cAMP: the enzyme adenyl cyclase converts ATP
into cyclic AMP which is a second messenger, which activates protein
kinase, which activates other intracellular molecules of the signal
cascade
oLipid derived second messengers: some GPCRs activate
phospholipase C (PLC) which causes a phospholipid from the
membrane to be converted into two second messenger molecules that
are lipids: DAG and IP3. DAG remains in the membrane and causes
protein kinase C which continues the signal cascade. IP3 enters the
cytoplasm and binds to a calcium channel on the endoplasmic
reticulum, which lets calcium diffuse out of the ER and into the
cytoplasm
Integrin receptor: ligand binding alters the cytoskeleton
Signal transduction: is how an extracellular signal molecule coming from outside
the cell activates a membrane receptor that alters intracellular molecules to create a
response
The extracellular signal molecule is the first messenger
The intracellular molecule system forms the second messenger system
This whole process is like a cascade- the product from the first step is
needed for the next step and etc until a product is formed
Competition: if a protein can bind to several different ligands, competition arises
between different ligands. Agonists are competing ligands that mimic each other’s
actions, turn receptors on. Antagonists block receptor activity
Down-regulation: programmed removal of proteins. It is a decrease in receptor
number, the cells can physically remove receptors through endocytosis
Up-regulation: the programmed production of new proteins, cell inserts more
receptors into membrane
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Unit 1
Important terms
Physiology: the study of the normal function of an organism and its component
parts, including all its chemical and physical processes- literally “knowledge of
nature”
Organ systems: groups of organs
Circulatory: transport of materials bw all cells in the body
Digestive: conversion of food into particles that can be transported into body
and elimination of some waste
Endocrine: coordination of body function through synthesis and release of
regulatory molecules
Immune: defense against foreign invaders
Integumentary: (skin) protection from external environment
Musculoskeletal: support and movement
Nervous: coordination of body function through electrical signals and release
of regulatory molecules
Reproductive: perpetuation of species
Respiratory: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between internal and
external environments
Urinary: maintenance of water and solutes in internal environment, waste
removal
Homeostasis: keeping internal environment stable (doesn’t always remain
constant- but remains similar- like an oscillation around a setpoint)
Cannon’s Postulates: described properties of homeostasis controlled systems
1. The nervous system has a role in preserving the fitness of the internal
environment: the nervous system controls homeostasis controlled systems
e.g. blood volume, blood pressure, body temp
2. Some systems are under tonic control: like a volume dial, can be turned up or
down- if more signal is sent, more response will occur, if less response sent
less response occurs
3. Some systems are under antagonistic control: if signal is sent, response will
increase, if a different signal is sent, response will decrease (two opposing
signals)
4. One chemical signal can have different effects in different tissues: different
receptors/signal pathways can have different responses for the same signal.
For example, epinephrine can constrict or dilate blood vessels, depending on
if vessel has alpha or beta2 adrenergic receptors
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