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Study Guide

[BIOL 273] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (25 pages long!)

25 pages176 viewsFall 2016

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL273
Professor
Vivian Rashida Dayeh
Study Guide
Midterm

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UW
BIOL 273
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Unit 1: Introduction to Physiology (Ch1, 3 and 6)
Ch1: Introduction to Physiology
Physiology: The study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts
(includes all the chemical and physical processes)
- Studying and understanding the vital functions of the human body
Physiology is an integrative Science:
- Many complex systems possess emergent properties
o Emergent properties: the properties and structure that cannot be predicated based
only on knowledge of the system’s individual components
Eg: Who can predict the right combination of elements into molecules?
Eg of emergent properties in humans -> Emotion, intelligence, and other
aspects of the brain function -> these properties can not be predicted even if
we posses the knowledge for nerve cells
- From HGP -> it was determined that one gene could code for more than one protein; that
is when they started to examining proteomics
- Integration of function across many levels of organization is a special focus of physiology
-> integration = to bring varied elements together to create a unified whole
- Levels of organization:
o Atoms of elements bind together to form molecules
o Collection of molecules will form cells -> cells = smallest structure that is able to
carry out all life processes
Cell membrane (lipid and protein barrier) = separates cells from the
external environment
o Tissues = collection of cells with related functions
o Organs = functional and structural units formed by tissues
o Organ systems = groups of organs integrating their functions to create the system
- Integumentary system = composed of the skin -> this is the protective boundary that
separates the body’s internal environment from the external environment
- Musculoskeletal system = provides support and body movement
- The following four system exchanges material between the internal and external
environment
o Respiratory system: gas exchange that occurs in the lungs
o Digestive system: takes up non-gaseous material -> absorbs nutrients and water,
and eliminates waste
o Urinary system: removal of excess water and waste material
o Reproductive system: produces eggs and sperm
- Circulatory system: pumping blood through the body and distributing material
- Nervous and Endocrine systems: coordinate body functions
- Immune system: Contains specialized cells that protects the internal environment from
foreign material and substances, and attackers
Function and Mechanism:
- Function = Why
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o This is teleological approach -> Tells us why a system functions a certain way but
DOES NOT tell us how the system functions that way
o Eg: RBC transport oxygen since cells need oxygen and RCB brings it to them -> this
tells us WHY RBC transports oxygen BUT IT DOES NOT tell us HOW it transport
oxygen
- Mechanisms = How
o Mechanistic approach -> tells us HOW a system does its thing
o Eg: Oxygen binds to hemoglobin molecules in the RBC
- Translational research -> applying the concepts of integrated functions and mechanisms
o Developing treatments for preventing human diseases by using the basic
biomedical research on mechanism
Themes in Physiology:
- 5 major themes (we will understand how four of these themes relate to physiology):
structure-function relationships, biological energy use, information flow within an
organism, and homeostasis
- Theme 1: Structure and Function are closely related
o Two major ideas -> molecular interactions and compartmentation
o This theme extents to all organization
o Molecular Interaction:
Interaction between individual molecules = key to biological function
Function = shape and structure of molecules -> eg. One a.a change in
hemoglobin results in sickle cell disease
Cell structure and mechanical properties are affected by the interactions
between proteins, water, and other molecules
o Compartmentation:
o Division of space into spate compartments
o This slows cells, tissues and organs to specialize and isolate functions
o Different types of compartments found at different levels of organization
- Theme 2: Living organism need energy
o Require continuous input of energy -> growth, reproduction, movement,
homeostasis use up energy while conducting their function
- Theme 3: Information flow coordinates body functions
o Transfer of information from DNA from generation to generation
o Transfer of information within the body of a single organism
o Information flow between cells take the form of chemical signals or electrical
signals
o Local communication -> information flow from one cell to its neighbors
o Long-distance communication -> information flow from one part of the body to
another
- Theme 4: Homeostasis maintains internal stability
o Keeping internal environment relatively stable
Homeostasis:
- Stability of various physiological functions -> body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure
- Homeostasis is maintained within a range of values rather than at an exact fixed value
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