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Unit 1 - Introduction to Physiology.docx

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University of Waterloo
BIOL 273
Catherine Studholme

Unit 1 Introduction to Physiology Chapters 136A IntroductionWhat is Physiology Study of normal structurefunction of a living organismits component parts animals and plants Key ConceptThemes in PhysiologyStructureFunctionstructure has large implications on functionBiological Energyfrom transporting molecules to body movementInformation Flowgenetics cellcell communicationHomeostasisregulation of internal environmentCompartmentalizationwithin cells to organs B HomeostasisWhat is homeostasis Central organizing principle of physiologyMaintenance of a relatively stable environmentInvolves a series of automatic control mechanisms not the sameo Keeps conditions more or less stable for all cells of the body o Achieved through the effects of different organ systems working together as a unit Result of homeostatic control of oscillation around a setpoint o Setpoints can change with time or with environmental cuesAcclimatization environmentally induced change in physiological function with no genetic changeo Eg acclimatization to altitudeAcclimationartificially induced changes eg in a lab Circadian Rhythms daily biological rhythms body temperature changeso Eg sleepwake cycles hormonal cyclesPathophysiologyfailure to maintain homeostasis will disrupt a function and may result in a disease stateLaw of Mass Balancethe amount of substance load in the body remains constant by offsetting any gain by an equal loss o Mass balanceexisting body loadintake or metabolic productionexcretion or metabolic removalo Mass Flowconcentration of substancevolume flow
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