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BIOL 273
Catherine Studholme

Unit 2 Neurophysiology Chapters 811A FunctionComponents of the Nervous System Function of the Nervous SystemOne of two key control structures of the human body other is endocrine system The nervous systemo Receives Informationusing sensory neurons receptors to receive from external environment Sends afferent signalsCNS can determine what it means and sends out a signal o Integrates Informationorganizes the informationbrings it together with already stored informationo Transduces Informationsends appropriate signals to muscles or glands Components of the Nervous System Central Nervous System CNS Figure 81 94 96 98b o Braino Spinal cord o Two important terms associated with the CNS Nucleiclusters of cell bodiesTractsbundles of axons forming a pathwayPeripheral Nervous System PNS Figure 94 o Everything elseo Consists of nerves bundles of axons of sensory or motor neurons existing outside of the CNSReceptors Peripheral nerves bundle of axons Gangliacluster of cell bodiesReceptorsspecialized cells that convert stimuli into electrical signals to transmit information to afferent neurons o Figure 101 o Can be neural will activate a cell or nonneuralAfferent sensory Neurons Figure 97 o Receive information from receptor cellso Transmit sensory temperature pressure lightother stimuli information to the CNS o Cell bodes are located outside the next to CNS o Long cytoplasmic extensions transmit information to cells interneurons within the CNSo Myelin sheath surrounds axon lengthInterneuronstransmit information signals within the CNS either laterally within the spinal cord or vertically to the braino Located inside the CNS never leaves makes up 96 of all neuronspasses on signal to the spinebraino Integrate information received from afferent neurons and previous informationtransmits signals to efferent neuronsEfferent motor neurons sends response signals o Receive information from interneurons o Cell bodies are located within the CNS o Cytoplasmic extensions transmit information to effectors Effectors carry out messages eg glands onoff muscles muscle etc Enlarged axon terminalso Possess varicosity bundles along axon also storesreleases neurotransmitterCells of the Nervous System NeuronsGenerate and transmit electrical impulses often over long distancesSoma cell bodycontains the nucleus and all biosynthetic machinery organelles mitochondria etco Centre of the chemical processeskeeps cell functioningaliveDendritesslender processes that receive information branching projections that collect and send information to soma AxonCytoplasmic extension that sends out informationo Transmit information away from the soma to other body parts muscle glands etco Originates from Axon Hillock o Figure 82 o Proteins are moved down the axon through axonal transportFast Axonal Transportmoves material by axoplasmic flow from the cell body to axon terminal used for enzymescytoskeleton proteinsSlow Axonal Transportmoves organelles using stationary microtubules to guide transport vesicles and mitochondria with aid of motor proteinsAxon Terminalsconnection between neuronother cells located at the end of axonso Participate as part of the synapse presynaptic parto Signals transfer from the axon terminals to dendrites of post synaptic cello Contains mitochondria and membranebound vesicles filled with neurocrineSynapseregion where axon terminal meets its target o Presynaptic cellneuron that delivers a signal to the synapse
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