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Unit 5 Respiratory System.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 273
Professor
Catherine Studholme
Semester
Summer

Description
Unit 5 Respiratory System A STRUCTUREFUNCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM pg 569576Functions of Respiratory System Multicellular organism need a specialized respiratory organ coupled with the circulatory system Respiratory System allows foro Exchange of gases between atmosphere and bloodo Homeostatic regulation of pHregulate CO release 2o Protection from inhaled pathogensirritating substances trapped in mucouso Vocalization Four Main Processes Figure 178 171 Gas exchange between atmosphere and lungs ventilationo Inspirationair moves into lungs inhalation forcedo Expirationair moves out of lungs exhalation forced during heavy breathing Gas exchange between lungs and blood CO and O Figure 171 22 Transport of gases by blood CO and O22 Exchange of gases between bloodtissues Refer to figure 181 on pg 600Cellular Respirationintracellular reaction of oxygen with organic molecules to produce CO HO and ATP 22 External Respirationmovement of gases between environment and bodys cells Respiratory System Figure 172 Airwaysconducting system Alveoliexchange surfaceBonesMuscles of thoraxpumping system abdominal musclesintercostal Conducting System Passages or airways lead from environment to the exchange surface of the lungs Upper respiratory tractmouth nasal cavity pharynx larynx Lower respiratory tracttrachea two primary bronchibranches and lungs Exchange Surface FIGURE 172f Alveolitiny hollow sacs found at the ends of the terminal bronchiole sites of gas exchange Wrapped with an extensive capillary network Cover 8090 of the alveolar surface Gas exchange occurs by diffusion between alveoli and capillaryType 1 Alveoli Cells FIGURE 172g o Large but thino Rapid gas diffusion Type 2 Alveoli Cellso Smaller but thickero Synthesizesecrete surfactanto Minimize the amount of fluid present by transporting soluteswater out of alveolar air spaceBlood vessels of the pulmonary circulation allow for exchange with alveoli Low oxygen blood exits the right ventricle of the heart Goes into the pulmonary arteries one to each lung About 10 of the total blood volume is in the pulmonary circulation at any one time Rate of blood flow is high because of all the output of the right ventricle goes to the lungs Vs whole body for left ventricle However blood pressure is low relative to the systemic circuito Right ventricle does not pump as forcefully as left ventricle Pumping System Bones and muscles of the thorax allow for ventilation inspiration and expiration Relation of the lungs to the chest wallo Chestthoraxo Closed compartment o Closed off at the top by neck muscles and connective tissueo Closed off at the bottom by diaphragm muscleo Wall is formed by the ribs covered by intercostal muscle internal and external setsLung Structure FIGURE 172 Each lung is surrounded by the pleural saco Forms a double membrane layer several layers of elastic connective tissues and capillaries around each lungo Pleura is filled with fluid30 mL each lubricant Provides moist surface for opposing membranes to slide across one another as the lungs move within the thorax Holds lungs tight against thoracic wall because of liquid cohesivenessB GAS LAWS Air Total pressure of a gas mixturesum of partial pressures of each individual gas
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