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Unit 6 Immune System.docx

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BIOL 273
Catherine Studholme

Unit 6 Immune SystemA FUNCTION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM pg 802 Introduction Big multicellular organisms provide lots of environment for other smaller organisms to proliferate in Ability of the body to fight off these invaders is called immunity immunisexempt Key features of the immune systemo Lymphoid tissuesimmune cellso Chemicals that coordinateexcrete functions Three functions of the immune systemo Protecting the bodyMicrobesbacteria viruses fungi protozoaParasitesworms etc Toxins produced by microbes Other foreign proteins or substances eg allergenso Removes deaddamaged tissue and cells Immune cells scavenge extracellular compartmentso Tries to recognize and remove abnormal cells Cells that are unable to control growth detected by immune system Disease of the Immune System When the immune system does not perform normally you can get a variety of pathologies Exampleso Incorrect responseautoimmunity cells attack themselveso Overactive responsesallergies response is greater than threat itself o Lack of responseimmunodeficiency acquired or inherited Types of Pathogens pg 802804 Diseasecausing agents parasites bacteria viruses that all require slightly different responses Parasites microbes or multicellularo Generally extracellular o Enter the body via a variety of routes 2 types of hostso Cause chronic illness nutritional deficiencies deatho Eg Malariaprotozoan life cycle between human and mosquito hosts enters human via insect biteBacteriao Can be intracellular and extracellularo Cells surrounded by a cell membraneusually a cell wallo Can survivereproduce outside hosto Most can be killed by drugs antibiotics Viruseso Intracellular pathogeno Nucleic acid core with protein coat capsid not cellso Cannot reproduce aloneo Some have envelope derived from host cell membraneo Cannot be killed by antibioticso Some can be treated with antiviral drugs target specific stages of viral replication o Once inside host virus nucleic acid takes overo New viral particles can either rupture host cell or bud off from host cell lytic vs lysogenic cycles B ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEMHAEMATOPOIESIS Lymphoid OrgansLymphImmune system organs are lymphoid organs because lymphocytes are found there The lymphoid organs are connected by blood vessels and lymph vessels Carry lymph clear fluido Essentially extracellular fluid that has left capillariesfilter through tissueo A conduit for lymphocytes to travel through Lymphocytesleukocytes with access to the lymph system Lymph nodes are located at strategic positions knee groin elbow shoulder neck Regions of the body outside lymphoid organs are referred to as the periphery Edemasign that exchange between circulatory system and lymphatic has been disrupted due too Increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure filtration exceeds absorption o Decrease in plasma protein concentrationo Increase in interstitial proteins Types of Lymphoid Organs FIGURE 244Primary Lymphoid Organso Organs where lymphocytes develop Bone Marrowall blood cells originate here Bcells mature hereThymus GlandTcells mature here Secondary Lymphoid Organso Organs where lymphocytes interact with pathogens and initiate responses
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