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Midterm

BIOL273 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Troponin C, Creatine Kinase, Myosin Head

23 pages55 viewsWinter 2018

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL273
Professor
Vivian Dayeh
Study Guide
Midterm

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BIOL 273 Midterm Review | Rebecca Yu
Unit 1 Introduction to Physiology
Physiology The study of structure and function of a living organism and component parts
Structure & Function
Biological Energy (ATP)
Information Flow
o Example: Sensory Pathways
Homeostasis
o Regulating a relatively stable internal environment
Integrative Science
Focuses cellular/molecular
Anatomy The study of structure of a living organism
Levels of Organization
Chemical
o Atoms and molecules
Cellular
o Neuron, lymphocyte
Tissue
o Collection of cells
Organ
o Structural unit made of tissues
Organ System
o Group of organs
Organism
o Individual form of life
Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere
o Ecology
Tissue Types
Cells -> held by cell junctions
o Anchoring junctions desosoes
Desmosomes anchor neighbouring cells together
Also anchors the cells to the basal lamina (basement membrane)
o Gap junctions
Channels link two cells together
Think of stitching the outside of two pieces of fabric
o Tight junctions
Proteins link two cells together
Think of stitching two pieces of fabric together throughout
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BIOL 273 Midterm Review | Rebecca Yu
In between cells -> etraellular atri = glue
o Synthesized and secreted by cells
Tissue Types
Epithelial
o Protects internal environment ONLY
o Regulates exchange of material between inside and outside
o Layers of cells + basal lamina (basement membrane) = epithelia
o SPECT (Secretory, Protective, Exchange, Ciliated, Transport)
Secretory Synthesize & release products into the external
environment
Protective Surface of body
Exchange Allows rapid movement of gaseous material in/out of cell
Ciliated Line airways and female reproductive tract
Transport Allows movement of non-gaseous compounds in/out cell
Connective
o Provides structural support and barriers
Extracellular matrix (ECM) glue inbetween cells
Proteoglycan (protein sugar), collagen, elastin, fibronectin
o BALDS (Blood, Adipose, Loose, Dense, Support)
Loose Elastic Tissue
Dense Strength (tendon)
Adipose Fat
Blood Watery matrix with protein fibers
Support Dense substance (cartilage/bone)
Muscle
o Contracts to produce force + movement
o CSS (Cardiac, Skeletal, Smooth)
Cardiac Found in heart, contracts to move blood
One nucleus
Striated
Skeletal Gross body movement
Multiple nucleus
Striated
Smooth Movement of substances
One nucleus
Not striated
Neural
o Carries information from one part of the body to another
o Barely any extracellular matrix in neural tissue
o NG (Neuron, Glial)
Neuron Carries information via chemical or electrical signals
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BIOL 273 Midterm Review | Rebecca Yu
Glial Cells Supports neurons
Function and Mechanism
Function A purpose intended for a person/thing
Why
Why does the system exist?
Mechanism An established process by which something takes place
Ho
How does the system work?
Note: We study mechanism to understand function -> how cellular and molecular changes
affects the organism
Homeostasis
Homeostasis The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment via input/output
Note: Relatively stable only means similarity, not constancy
Automatic control mechanisms
Oscillation around a set point
o Can change
o Acclimatization Temporary change in physiological function with no genetic
change
Going higher in altitudes
Note: If there is genetic change, that is considered evolution
o Circadian Rhythm Daily biological rhythms can change
Sleep-Wake Cycle
Hormonal Cycle (i.e. menstruation)
Can be maintained by local or long-distance pathways
o Local Control Paracrine/Autocrine Signals
o Reflex Control Reaction in one or more organs controlled from elsewhere
Negative Feedback
Removes the original stimulus which returns the variable back to
original value
Near set point
Positive Feedback
Encourages more stimulus which returns the variable further from
original value
Further from set point
Not homeostatic
Feedforward Control
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