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Final

BIOL273 Study Guide - Final Guide: Immunoglobulin D, Venule, Aortic Valve

68 pages83 viewsWinter 2018

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL273
Professor
Vivian Dayeh
Study Guide
Final

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BIOL 273 Final Exam Study Guide | Rebecca Yu
Unit 6 Immune System
Introduction to Function of Immune System
Immunity The ability of the body to fight off invaders (immunis = exempt)
1. Protect
a. Protect the body from microbes, parasites, toxins, and other foreign
proteins/substances (i.e. allergens)
2. Removal
a. Removes dead or damaged tissues/cells
b. Macrophages do this -> scavenge extracellular compartments
3. Recognize
a. Recognize and destroy abnormal cells
b. Cells that proliferate infinitely can be detected
i. Cancer/tumour cells
Diseases of the Immune System
1. Incorrect Response
a. When the immune system recognizes part of your own body as foreign and
attacks
b. Autoimmune disease
c. Lupus, psoriasis
2. Overactive Response
a. When the immune system attacks something foreign that does no harm to
others
b. Allergies -> peanut, seafood, etc
3. Lack of Response
a. When the immune system cannot attack the foreign material
b. Immunodeficiency
c. AIDS, Cancer
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BIOL 273 Final Exam Study Guide | Rebecca Yu
Types of Pathogens
Pathogens Disease-causing agents
Parasites
o Extracellular
o Can enter the body in a number of ways
o Causes chronic illness, nutritional deficiencies, death
o Requires nutrients from host in order to live
Bacteria
o Extracellular or Intracellular
o Cells are surrounded by cell membrane or cell wall
o Can survive and reproduce outside host
o Antibiotics kill bacteria
Viruses
o Intracellular
o Not cells
They are RNA/DNA with a protein coat (capsid)
o Cannot survive and reproduce outside host
o Cannot be killed with antibiotics
Antiviral medication
o Viruses compromise host genome
o Host cells rupture by newly synthesized viruses
Immune System Organs & Tissues
Lymphoid Organ/Tissue
o Lymphocytes are found in these organs
o Connected by blood & lymph vessels
o Lymph Clear extracellular fluid that are found outside of cells and in
lymphatic vessels
Transport mechanism for immune cells
o Primary Help develop lymphocytes
Bone marrow
Origin of all blood cells
B lymphocytes mature here
Thymus
T lymphocytes mature here (after moving from the bone
marrow)
o Learning to recognize own cells as self cells
o Secondary Lymphocytes interact and initiate response
Encapsulated Surrounded by fibrous wall
Spleen
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BIOL 273 Final Exam Study Guide | Rebecca Yu
Lymph nodes
o Filters lymph to identify and fight infection
o Immune cells are located in lymph nodes
o Knee, groin, elbow, shoulder, neck
o Afferent lymph vessel brings in lymphocytes from
periphery
o Efferent lymph vessel allows lymph to continue
circulation
Diffuse/Non-Encapsulated
Tonsils
Gut-associated lymph tissue (GALT)
Types of Immune Cells
Antigen (Antibody Generator) Substances that are recognized by an antibody and starts an
immune response (associated with the pathogen)
Antibody (Immunoglobulins) Proteins or B cells that bind specifically to antigens and target
pathogens for destruction taggers
White blood cells
Larger than red blood cells
Can leave the blood stream (diapedesis/extravasion) and function in the tissues
(extravascular)
o Diapedesis Movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory and in
infected/damaged tissue
o Extravasion Liquid accidentally leaking into surrounding tissue
Granulocytes
Phagocytes
Cytotoxic Cells
Antigen-Presenting
Cells (APC)
Contain
cytoplasmic
granules/granula
r appearance
Eosinophils
Basophils
Neutrophils
Mast Cells
Engulfs/eats
pathogens
Eosinophils
(only in
petri)
Neutrophils
(body)
Macrophag
e (body)
MEN
Kill cells
Eosinophils
Natural
Killer
lymphocyte
s
Display
fragments of
pathogen on
cell surface -
> like a child
wanting to
show off
something
Lymphocyte
s (B and T
Cells)
Dendritic
cells
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