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BIOL 301 (27)


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University of Waterloo
BIOL 301
Vivian Dayeh

CHAPTER 17 - THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Introduction − Endocrine system is a system of ductless glands o Secrete messenger molecules called hormones − Interacts closely with the nervous system e − Endocrine organs are scattered throughout the body Pure endocrine organs − Pituitary gland (hypophysis) o Attached to hypothalamus by the infundibulum  sits in the hypophyseal fossa (a depression of the sella turcica of sphenoid bone) o Secretes at least 9 major hormones. o 2 basic divisions of the pituitary gland:  Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe)  composed of glandular tissue  has 3 major divisions: • Pars distalis (largest), parts intermedia, pars tuberalis (wraps around infundibulum like a tube) • Produces hormones e.g., growth hormone, FSH  Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe)  composed of neural tissue and part of the brain  has 2 major divisions: • Pars nervosa and infundibular • Produces hormones e.g., oxytocin o Blood supply reaches hypophysis through 2 branches of the internal carotid artery:  Superior hypophyseal artery  supplies entire adenohypophysis and the infundibulum  Inferior hypophyseal artery  supplies the pars nervosa − Pineal gland o Located on roof of the diencephalon o Shaped like a pine cone  special star-shaped cells called pinealocytes secrete melatonin o Opaque during x-rays − Thyroid gland o Located in anterior neck, on the trachea just inferior to the larynx o It has 2 lateral lobes (thus butterfly shaped) that are connected by a median bridge called the isthmus. o Largest pure endocrine gland o Composed of follicles and areolar CT o Gets blood supply from the superior and inferior thyroid arteries. − Parathyroid gland o Lie on posterior surface of thyroid glands o Distinct organs surrounded by their own CT capsules. o Regulate calcium levels in body − Adrenal/suprarenal gland o Located on superior surface of each kidney; pyramidal/crescent-shaped o Each adrenal gland is supplied by up to 60 small suprarenal arteries, forming 3 groups:  Superior suprarenal arteries  inferior phrenic artery  Middle suprarenal arteries  aorta  Inferior suprarenal arteries  renal artery o Veins:  Left suprarenal v
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