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THE HUMAN BODY.docx
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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 301
Professor
Vivian Dayeh
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 1 – THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION AN OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY − Anatomy - study of the structure of the human body. − Morphology – science of form. − Physiology – study of body function. Branches of anatomy Gross anatomy  study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye. − Important technique: dissection  connective tissue is removed from between organs. − Regional anatomy – all structures in a single body region are examined in a group. − Systemic anatomy – all organs with related functions are studied together. − Surface anatomy – study of shapes and markings on the surface of the body that reveal the underlying organs. Microscopic anatomy/histology  study of structures that are so small they can only be seen with a microscope e.g., cells, tissues etc. Other branches: − Developmental anatomy – traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the lifespan and the effects of aging. − Embryology – study of how body structures form − Pathological anatomy – structural changes in cells, tissues etc caused by disease. − Radiographic anatomy – study of internal body structures by means of X-ray studies − Functional morphology – functioning properties of body structures and assesses the efficiency of their design. Hierarchy of structural organization − Chemical level – atoms combine to form molecules − Cellular level – cells and organelles are the building blocks of life − Tissue level – group of cells work together to perform a common function − Organ level – contain all 4 tissue types − Organ system – organs work together to accomplish a common purpose. − Organismal level – whole living person GROSS ANATOMY: INTRODUCTION Regional and directional terms − Anatomical position - common visual reference point. o Stand with feet together, palms facing anteriorly, thumbs pointing away from body o Right and left refer to the sides of the cadaver you are viewing. − Regional terms – names of specific body areas: o Axial region – makes up main axis of the body: head, neck and trunk  Trunk  thorax (chest), abdomen, and pelvis, and perineum. o Appendicular region – consists of limbs/appendages/extremities. Body planes and sections − Body is sectioned/cut along a plane: o Frontal/coronal plane – vertical; divides body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) parts o Transverse/horizontal plane – horizontal from right to left; divides body into superior and inferior parts. o Sagittal planes – vertical but divide body in right and left parts.  Midline is the median/midsagittal plane  Other sagittal planes offset from midline are parasagittal.  Oblique sections – cuts made along any plane that lies diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical. Orientation and directional terms Term Definition Superior (cranial) Toward the head end or upper part of a body structure; above Inferior (caudal) Away form the head end or toward lower part of body structure; below Anterior (ventral) In front of Posterior (dorsal) Behind Medial Inner side of; toward or at midline Lateral Away from midline; outer side of Proximal Closer to origin of the body part of point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Distal Farther from the origin of a body part or point of attachment of limb to body trunk Superficial (external) Toward or at body surface Deep (internal) Away from the body surface; internal Ipsilateral On same side (e.g., right hand and foot) Contralateral On opposite sides The human body plan All vertebrates share the following basic features: − Tube within a tube body plan  inner tube from mouth to anus; outer tube of axial skeleton and associated axial muscles − Bilateral symmetry  right side is mirror image of left. − Dorsal hollow nerve cord  along midline; develops into brain and spinal cord − Notochord and vertebrae − Segmentation  ribs in humans is evidence of this − Pharyngeal pouches Body cavities and membranes − Dorsal body cavity o Cranial cavity – lies in the skull and encases the brain o Vertebral cavity – runs through the vertebral column to enclose spinal cord. − Ventral body cavity  more anterior and larger of the body cavities; contains visceral organs (lungs, heart, intestines and kidneys) o Superior thoracic cavity – surrounded by ribs and muscles of chest wall. Consists of 3 parts:  2 lateral parts, each containing a lung surrounded by pleural cavity  Central band of organs called mediasti
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