Study Guides (248,518)
Canada (121,606)
Biology (1,112)
BIOL 301 (27)


5 Pages
Unlock Document

BIOL 301
Vivian Dayeh

CHAPTER 1 – THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION AN OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY − Anatomy - study of the structure of the human body. − Morphology – science of form. − Physiology – study of body function. Branches of anatomy Gross anatomy  study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye. − Important technique: dissection  connective tissue is removed from between organs. − Regional anatomy – all structures in a single body region are examined in a group. − Systemic anatomy – all organs with related functions are studied together. − Surface anatomy – study of shapes and markings on the surface of the body that reveal the underlying organs. Microscopic anatomy/histology  study of structures that are so small they can only be seen with a microscope e.g., cells, tissues etc. Other branches: − Developmental anatomy – traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the lifespan and the effects of aging. − Embryology – study of how body structures form − Pathological anatomy – structural changes in cells, tissues etc caused by disease. − Radiographic anatomy – study of internal body structures by means of X-ray studies − Functional morphology – functioning properties of body structures and assesses the efficiency of their design. Hierarchy of structural organization − Chemical level – atoms combine to form molecules − Cellular level – cells and organelles are the building blocks of life − Tissue level – group of cells work together to perform a common function − Organ level – contain all 4 tissue types − Organ system – organs work together to accomplish a common purpose. − Organismal level – whole living person GROSS ANATOMY: INTRODUCTION Regional and directional terms − Anatomical position - common visual reference point. o Stand with feet together, palms facing anteriorly, thumbs pointing away from body o Right and left refer to the sides of the cadaver you are viewing. − Regional terms – names of specific body areas: o Axial region – makes up main axis of the body: head, neck and trunk  Trunk  thorax (chest), abdomen, and pelvis, and perineum. o Appendicular region – consists of limbs/appendages/extremities. Body planes and sections − Body is sectioned/cut along a plane: o Frontal/coronal plane – vertical; divides body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) parts o Transverse/horizontal plane – horizontal from right to left; divides body into superior and inferior parts. o Sagittal planes – vertical but divide body in right and left parts.  Midline is the median/midsagittal plane  Other sagittal planes offset from midline are parasagittal.  Oblique sections – cuts made along any plane that lies diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical. Orientation and directional terms Term Definition Superior (cranial) Toward the head end or upper part of a body structure; above Inferior (caudal) Away form the head end or toward lower part of body structure; below Anterior (ventral) In front of Posterior (dorsal) Behind Medial Inner side of; toward or at midline Lateral Away from midline; outer side of Proximal Closer to origin of the body part of point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Distal Farther from the origin of a body part or point of attachment of limb to body trunk Superficial (external) Toward or at body surface Deep (internal) Away from the body surface; internal Ipsilateral On same side (e.g., right hand and foot) Contralateral On opposite sides The human body plan All vertebrates share the following basic features: − Tube within a tube body plan  inner tube from mouth to anus; outer tube of axial skeleton and associated axial muscles − Bilateral symmetry  right side is mirror image of left. − Dorsal hollow nerve cord  along midline; develops into brain and spinal cord − Notochord and vertebrae − Segmentation  ribs in humans is evidence of this − Pharyngeal pouches Body cavities and membranes − Dorsal body cavity o Cranial cavity – lies in the skull and encases the brain o Vertebral cavity – runs through the vertebral column to enclose spinal cord. − Ventral body cavity  more anterior and larger of the body cavities; contains visceral organs (lungs, heart, intestines and kidneys) o Superior thoracic cavity – surrounded by ribs and muscles of chest wall. Consists of 3 parts:  2 lateral parts, each containing a lung surrounded by pleural cavity  Central band of organs called mediasti
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 301

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.