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BIOL 301
Vivian Dayeh

CHAPTER 9 – JOINTS CLASSIFICATION OF JIONTS/ARTICULATIONS − Based on: o Function focuses on amount of movement allowed  Synarthroses  immovable joints • Restricted to axial skeleton  Amphiarthroses  slightly moveable • Restricted to axial skeleton  Diarthroses  freely moveable • Predominate in limbs o Structure  based on material that binds the bones together and on the presence or absence of joint cavity.  Fibrous  No joint cavity; bones connected by fibrous tissue (dense regular CT) • Suture (short fibers)  immovable (synarthroses) o Occur only between bones of the skull • Syndesmosis (longer fibers)  slightly moveable (amphiarthroses) o Amount of movement depends on length of connecting fibers. If short, little movement. o E.g., fibula/tibia. • Gomphosis (periodontal ligament)  immovable (synarthroses) o E.g., teeth sockets  Cartilaginous  adjoining bones united by cartilage • Synchondroses (hyaline cartilage)  immobile o E.g., epiphyseal plates, joint between 1st rib’s costal cartilage and manubrium • Symphyses (fibrocartilage)  slightly moveable o E.g., intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis of pelvis  Synovial joints  adjoining bones separated by joint cavity; covered with articular cartilage, enclosed within an articular capsule lined with synovial membrane. • Types: plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball and socket  freely moveable (diarthroses) General structure of synovial joints − All have the following basic features: o Articular cartilage at ends of opposing bones covered in hyaline cartilage o Joint cavity/synovial cavity that holds synovial fluid o Articular capsule  outer layer is fibrous capsule of dense irregular CT that strengthens the joint; inner layer is synovial membrane composed of loose CT and makes synovial fluid. o Synovial fluid that lubricates the joints o Reinforcing ligaments o Nerves and vessels Movements allowed by synovial joints − Gliding  one bone surface glides across anoth
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