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BIOL 301
Vivian Dayeh

CHAPTER 22 - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Introduction − Basic functions of the respiratory system o Supplies body with oxygen o Disposes of carbon dioxide − 4 processes involved in respiration (Cellular respiration because it converts glucose to ATP) o Pulmonary ventilation  movement of air in/out of lungs o External respiration  gas exchange between blood and air o Transport of respiratory gases  via cardiovascular system o Internal respiration  exchange of gases at tissue level FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM − Respiratory organs o Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses o Pharynx, larynx, and trachea o Bronchi and smaller branches o Lungs and alveoli − Divided into: o Conducting zone  carry air to sites of gas exchange, humidify and warm incoming air o Respiratory zone  site of gas exchange and contain alveoli. The nose and the paranasal sinuses The nose − Only externally visible part of the respiratory system − Functions: o Provides airway for respiration o Moistens and warms entering air o Filters inhaled air to cleanse it of foreign particles o Serves as a resonating chamber of speech o Houses the olfactory (smell) receptors. − Conditions and filters the air o Humidifies air (bring increases to body temp) o Mucous material to filter large matter out − Divided into: o External nose  Frontal and nasal bones superiorly, maxillary bones laterally, and hyaline cartilage inferiorly o Internal nasal cavity  Lies in and posterior to external nose.  Air enters through external nares  nostrils.  Divided by nasal septum  divide left and right nasal cavity • Septum formed by perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, the vomer and a septal cartilage.  Continuous with nasopharynx • Posterior nasal apertures  choanae or internal nares.  Anteriorly, where the palate contains the horizontal processes of the palatine bones and the palatine process of the maxillary bone, it is called the hard palate.  The posterior part is the muscular soft palate.  Vestibule  part that lies just superior to the nostrils; lined with skin containing sebaceous and sweat glands and numerous hair follicles. Nasal conchae − Superior and middle nasal conchae o Part of the ethmoid bone − Inferior nasal conchae o Separate bone − Project medially from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity − Particulate matter o Deflected to mucous-coated surfaces that are scroll-like The pharynx/throat − Funnel-shaped passageway − Connects nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly. − Divided into 3 sections by location: o Nasopharynx  posterior to nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid bone  Serves only as an air passageway.  During swallowing, the soft palate and its pendulous uvula reflect superiorly, an action that closes off the nasopharynx and prevents food from entering the nasal cavity. o Oropharynx  posterior to oral cavity  Both swallowed food and inhaled air pass through. o Laryngopharynx  posterior to larynx, continuous with larynx and esophagus  Both swallowed food and inhaled air pass through. The larynx/voice box − Attached to hyoid bone superiorly and is continuous with trachea inferiorly − Has 3 functions: o Producing vocalizations o Providing an open airway o Acting as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels. − Arrangement of 9 cartilages (3 paired, 3 unpaired) creates the framework of larynx o Thyroid cartilage  paired and resembles an open book, with the spine lying in the anterior midline of the neck.  Spine is the ridgelike laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple) o Cri
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