Study Guides (248,357)
Canada (121,502)
Biology (1,099)
BIOL 301 (27)

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.docx
Premium

4 Pages
117 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 301
Professor
Vivian Dayeh
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 22 - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Introduction − Basic functions of the respiratory system o Supplies body with oxygen o Disposes of carbon dioxide − 4 processes involved in respiration (Cellular respiration because it converts glucose to ATP) o Pulmonary ventilation  movement of air in/out of lungs o External respiration  gas exchange between blood and air o Transport of respiratory gases  via cardiovascular system o Internal respiration  exchange of gases at tissue level FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM − Respiratory organs o Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses o Pharynx, larynx, and trachea o Bronchi and smaller branches o Lungs and alveoli − Divided into: o Conducting zone  carry air to sites of gas exchange, humidify and warm incoming air o Respiratory zone  site of gas exchange and contain alveoli. The nose and the paranasal sinuses The nose − Only externally visible part of the respiratory system − Functions: o Provides airway for respiration o Moistens and warms entering air o Filters inhaled air to cleanse it of foreign particles o Serves as a resonating chamber of speech o Houses the olfactory (smell) receptors. − Conditions and filters the air o Humidifies air (bring increases to body temp) o Mucous material to filter large matter out − Divided into: o External nose  Frontal and nasal bones superiorly, maxillary bones laterally, and hyaline cartilage inferiorly o Internal nasal cavity  Lies in and posterior to external nose.  Air enters through external nares  nostrils.  Divided by nasal septum  divide left and right nasal cavity • Septum formed by perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, the vomer and a septal cartilage.  Continuous with nasopharynx • Posterior nasal apertures  choanae or internal nares.  Anteriorly, where the palate contains the horizontal processes of the palatine bones and the palatine process of the maxillary bone, it is called the hard palate.  The posterior part is the muscular soft palate.  Vestibule  part that lies just superior to the nostrils; lined with skin containing sebaceous and sweat glands and numerous hair follicles. Nasal conchae − Superior and middle nasal conchae o Part of the ethmoid bone − Inferior nasal conchae o Separate bone − Project medially from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity − Particulate matter o Deflected to mucous-coated surfaces that are scroll-like The pharynx/throat − Funnel-shaped passageway − Connects nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly. − Divided into 3 sections by location: o Nasopharynx  posterior to nasal cavity, inferior to the sphenoid bone  Serves only as an air passageway.  During swallowing, the soft palate and its pendulous uvula reflect superiorly, an action that closes off the nasopharynx and prevents food from entering the nasal cavity. o Oropharynx  posterior to oral cavity  Both swallowed food and inhaled air pass through. o Laryngopharynx  posterior to larynx, continuous with larynx and esophagus  Both swallowed food and inhaled air pass through. The larynx/voice box − Attached to hyoid bone superiorly and is continuous with trachea inferiorly − Has 3 functions: o Producing vocalizations o Providing an open airway o Acting as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels. − Arrangement of 9 cartilages (3 paired, 3 unpaired) creates the framework of larynx o Thyroid cartilage  paired and resembles an open book, with the spine lying in the anterior midline of the neck.  Spine is the ridgelike laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple) o Cri
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 301

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit