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THE URINARY SYSTEM.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 301
Professor
Vivian Dayeh

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Description
THE URINARY SYSTEM INTRODUCTION − Urinary system maintains the chemical consistency of the blood o Sends toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess water out of the body o Main waste products  urea, uric acid, and creatine − Main organs of the urinary system o Kidneys  forms urine o Ureters  Paired tubes carry urine from kidneys to urinary bladders o Urinary bladder  storage area for urine o Urethra  tube that carries urine externally THE KIDNEYS − External anatomy o Lie retroperitoneal in the superior lumbar region of posterior abdominal wall  T12-L3 o Secured and surrounded by 3 layers of tissue (from superficial to deep)  Fibrous capsule  adheres directly to outer layer of kidney itself  shapes kidney  Adipose capsule (perirenal fat capsule)  cushions and anchors  Renal fascia  thin layer of dense CT to anchor kidney in position • Contains an external layer of fat, the pararenal fat. o Hilum (indentation on kidney)  vertical cleft containing vessels, ureter and nerves  Peritoneal fat capsule protects kidney from the lateral side the most compared to anterior where the visceral organs can protect them. − Internal anatomy o 2 distinct regions  renal cortex and renal medulla  Renal cortex  superficial region  Renal medulla  deep to the cortex • Contain renal pyramids separated by renal columns • Renal pelvis  funnel shaped tube o Contain branching extensions to form major calicies which divide to form minor calicies − Kidney has lobes, each of which is a single renal pyramid plus the cortical tissue that surrounds that pyramid. − Renal sinus  large space within the medial part of the kidney opening to the exterior through the renal hilum. o Is a filled space because it contains the renal vessels and nerves, some fat and urine-carrying tubes called the renal pelvis and calicles. − Kidney blood supply − Blood travels from aorta  renal artery  segmental artery  interlobar artery  arcuate artery  cortical radiate artery  afferent arteriole  glomerulus (capillaries)  efferent arteriole  peritubular capillaries and vasa recta  cortical radiate vein  arcuate vein  interlobular vein  renal vein  inferior vena cava *Italicized is nephron-associated blood vessels The nephron − Nephron is functional unit of the kidneys − Components: o Renal corpuscle  occurs strictly in the cortex  Consists of glomerulus and glomerular/Bowman ’s capsule  filtration occurs here o Renal tubule  Consists of proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop (of Henle) and distal convoluted tubule  modification of filtrate occurs here o Classes of nephrons  There are 2 classes depending on
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