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THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM.docx
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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 301
Professor
Vivian Dayeh
Semester
Winter

Description
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM INTRODUCTION − Reproductive system is responsible for the production of offspring o Reproductive organs = genitalia (which has internal and external components) − Made up of: o Primary sex organs  gonads  Testes (males) and ovaries (females) • Produce sex cells/gametes (sperm and ova) and sex hormones (endocrine glands) o Accessory sex organs  if not ovary/testes  Various glands/ducts and external genitalia MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM − Produces gametes (spermatocytes/sperm) − Includes: testes, scrotum, accessory glands and ducts, penis The testes − Paired oval glands in the scrotum  retroperitoneal o Produce sperm and hormones − Partially enclosed by the tunica vaginalis (surround testes) − The testes are covered by the tunica albuginea  dense fibrous CT o Divides the testes into lobules each containing 1-4 tightly coiled seminiferous tubules The scrotum − It is an out pocketing of the abdominopelvic wall o The septum in the midline divides scrotum into left and right. − An external location is required to reduce temperature for sperm production o 2 muscles allow for temperature control  Dartos muscle  wrinkles scrotal skin • This smooth muscle is wrapped around serotal region and makes the skin thicket (increases temperature)  Cremaster muscle (skeletal muscle)  elevates testes • Warmer (towards body) or cooler (descend testes) − Spermatic cord passes through the inguinal canal in abdominal wall o Transport through inguinal ring  house vas deferens and blood vessels leading towards testes. Duct system − Sperm leaving the seminiferous tubules of the testes travel through the male reproductive ducts o Site of final maturation and storage − The urethra carries sperm to outside of the body o Prostatic  in prostate o Membranous  in urogenital diaphragm o Spongy  in penis − Duct system path o Seminiferous tubules (make immature sperm – cant swim and need to mature as they travel down path)  ductus epididymis  ductus (vas) deferens  ejaculatory duct  urethra Accessory glands − Secrete the bulk of semen  fluid and sperm o Seminal vesicles  elongated, paired, posterior to the bladder o Prostate  single, median, spherical at base of bladder o Bulbourethral  pea-sized, paired, inferior to prostate  Embedded in urogenital diaphragm The penis − External anatomy o Shaft  body o Glans penis  distal expanded end o Prepuce  foreskin − Internal anatomy o 3 erectile bodies:  One corpus sponginosum  surrounds spongy urethra  2 coropora cavernosa  contain sinuses; make up most o
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