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BIOL 302
Catherine Studholme

BIOL 302 HISTOLOGY NOTES AARON TAI Lecture 1 – Basic Tissues - Histology – microscopical anatomy - Low magnification = looking for big structure - High magnification = looking for small structure - Membrane o Function – barrier to allow transport of molecules, energy sources, signals (molecular exchange) - Organelle – membrane bound, determines cell function - Cell membrane regulate molecular interactions o Molecular exchange for osmotic regulation o Adhesion to cell-cell and cell-matrix o Motility o Communication and signalling o Type of junctions present indicate cell function - Nucleus – genomic container (<20% = DNA), RNA synthesis, DNA replication, ribosome assembly - Nucleolus – non-membrane bound, site of ribosome assembly, active transport via pores - Mitochondria – extensive folding (cristae) = increase surface area for greater ATP production - Rough ER – translate protein on membrane - Smooth ER – synthesis, packaging, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in muscle store Ca++, hormone synthesis - Golgi Complex – secretion, mod protein from ER (glycosalation for protection from degrade) - Peroxisome/Lysosome – degrade protein, waste, contain enzymes - Endocytosis – active process bring molecule into cell (signals, nutrients, bacteria) Lecture 2 – Epithelia I - Tissue = cells w/ same elements, in communities - Epithelia – line surface of cavities and space (lumen), 6 types o Functions – protection (abrasion resistance – keratin, mucous – goblet cells), absorption (microvilli), secretion (glands), transport (cilia), barrier (junctions) o Organization – modifiable apical surface, lateral surface and basement membrane (basal lamina), no blood vessels to prevent internal bleeding/cancer cells, held together w/ junctions  Mucous secreting cells face apical o Apical specializations  Microvilli (brush border) – increase surface area for absorption, cannot see between them, smaller than half nucleus, contrast colour to cell  Actin fiber cytoskeleton, actin core so cannot move, no basal body  Stereocilia – modified microvilli (absorption)  Very long ¾ cell  Sparse, ragged, tangled, gaps  Located in epididymis and inner ear  Cilia – transport, more than half nucleus height, gaps  Respiratory system, female reproductive tract  Microtubule cytoskeleton = axoneme (9+2 microtubule arrangement) o Tubulin = protein of microtubules  Anchor in cell = basal body = separate cell from cilia  Keratin – resist abrasion, moisture  On skin, no nuclei, tissue paper appearance, dead cells o Lateral Specializations  Adhesion Sites - Adhere through cell surface receptors  Tight junction – prevent movement of object b/w cell, most apical junction (e.g. stomach lining – keep acid in lumen) o Has transmembrane protein (occludin, claudin-1, JAM)  Adheren Junction – anchor membranes, encircle ce
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