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University of Waterloo
BIOL 302
Catherine Studholme

Study Questions: Lecture 1 + 2 1. Define a. Development – process of growth, differentiation, reproduction of an organism (includes embryogenesis, postembryonic development, adulthood) b. Growth – increase in size and mass, number of cells (organism growth) and volume (cell growth) c. Differentiation – structural adaptation of a cell or part of organism so it can perform a function d. Histogenesis – formation of different tissue from undifferentiated cells during development e. Organogenesis – differentiation of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm into internal organs through folds, splits and condensation f. Morphogenesis – shaping of an organism by embryological process of differentiating cells, tissues, organs, and development of organ systems into anatomical forms and structures based on genetic “blueprint” of organism and environmental conditions g. Reproduction – sexual or asexual process that organisms generate new individuals of same kind h. Tissue – part of organism with a collection of cells that have similar structure and function i. Organ – fully differentiated structural and functional unit in animals that specializes in a certain function j. Organ System – individual organs with specialized functions grouped into an organ system (nervous, respiratory system) k. Organism – living thing that can (or can develop) act and function independently 2. Distinguish between growth and differentiation with an example were each occurs independently of each other a. Growth if the process of an entity increasing its size, mass, number of cells and volume whereas differentiation is when structural adaptation of a cell or a part of an organism occurs so that it can perform a function. b. During embryogenesis, growth occurs near the beginning where the zygote divides to increase its number of cells and size whereas differentiation occurs much later on when the cells become specific tissues. i. Growth = formation of gastrula from blastula ii. Differentiation = hematopoietic stem cell becoming red blood cell 3. Explain “The entire life history of animals is cyclical” a. Animals undergo embryogenesis, are born, undergo postembryonic development, reach adulthood and reproduce to form offspring and then they die. b. All animals go through similar stages of development. The basic life cycle consists of : fertilization (fusion of egg and sperm), cleavage (division of zygote into numerous cells- blastomeres), gastrulation (blastomere rearrangement), germ layer formation, organogenesis, metamorphosis (change in form - tadpole to frog), adulthood and senescence (aging) 4. What are the two major questions that are addressed by the discipline of developmental biology a. How does adult organism develop from one cell? b. How does adult organism produce another organism? 5. Define a. Chemotaxis–release of chemical gradient from egg that attract sperm movement towards the egg b. Reseact – 14 Amino acid peptide isolated from egg jelly of sea urchin, part of chemical secretion by egg, sperm of same species have receptor for peptide and swim towards it c. Agglutination (of sperm to jelly coat) – binding of sperm bindin in acrosomal process to ERB1 receptor on egg d. Capacitation–maturation of sperm via physiological changes, molecular events involving cell membrane that allows penetration and fertilization of egg, occurs when sperm reaches ampulla region, OCCUR IN MAMMALS ONLY e. Acrosome (acrosomal membrane) – organelle developed from golgi apparatus that fuses with sperm plasma membrane when receptors on sperm contact egg jelly, which allows acrosomal process to form f. Bindin – protein within acrosomal process which binds to ERB1 receptor on egg cell membrane, allows for species-specific binding of acrosomal process g. Acrosomal filament (process) – formed from globular to filamentous actin once acrosome fuses with sperm plasma membrane, contains bindin h. Activation (of the egg) – independ of fusion of genetic material i. Early phase 1. activation dependent on increase in Ca++ after fusion (Urchin) 2. activation after few waves Ca++ release (pH rise) (mammal) 3. activation of NAD+ kinase enzyme that converts NAD+ to NADP+ coenzyme for lipid biosynthesis 4. O2 reduce to H2O2 to crosslink fertilization envelope 5. scavenge free radicals created by previous to prevent DNA damage ii. Late Phase 1. Urchin – increase intracellular pH to synthesize DNA, protein (exchange Na+ for H+) for DNA and protein synthesis 2. Both - incr. Ca++ block MAP kinase = allow DNA replication, produce cyclin B, combine with cdk1 = initiate division i. Egg Cortex – 5 micrometer cytoplasmic gel-like shell under the egg cell membrane, made of globular actin that transforms into microfilaments after fertilization, contain cortical granules that are homologous to acrosomal vesicle i. microfilaments – help cell divide, form microvilli (help sperm entry) j. Cortical granules – made by golgi apparatus and contain enzymes that digest sperm receptor proteins ZP2, ZP3 and modify extracellular space to slow block prevent polyspermy, activated 1 minute after fusion, homologous to acrosomal vesicle k. Vitelline envelope or membrane – extracellular envelope for invertebrate eggs, a matrix responsible for sperm-egg recognition l. Fertilization membrane or envelope – formed from fusion with cortical granule and vitelline envelope m. Zonapellucida – mammal egg analog of vitelline envelope (sperm-egg recognition), contains proteins ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and accessory proteins 6. List and briefly describe adaptations which increase the probability that a sperm and egg will find one another and that succ
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