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BIOL 302
Catherine Studholme

EMBRYOLOGY EXAM REVIEW 1. Somite Development Diagram – Be able to draw (L12) a. Structures form morphogen gradients that hit different structures in different concentrations i. Different morphogen come and influence structure formation based on the proximity b. Veins and arteries differentiation related to this i. Signal pathway – notch – activate by vegf from sclerotome 1. Sclerotome induce by shh from notochord 2. Receive notch early become artery 3. Further ones develop into veins 2. Bone formation a. Endochondral i. Cartilage forming from bone ii. Somite from lateral plate b. Intramembranous i. Form neural crest cells (direct) c. Runx2 transcription factor involved 3. Resctriction of fgf by wnt mechanism a. Somites, hox i. Hoxes – control by Retinoic acid and fgfs ii. Hox6 – anterior limb formation factor iii. Tbxs control wnts iv. Wnts – control fgf10 v. Fgf10 induce fgf8 in ectoderm vi. Fgf8 maintain fgf10 in mesoderm vii. Fgf10 maintain proliferation 1. What is proliferated is what is in progress zone (mesenchyme) a. b. Fgf10 found everywhere then wnt restricts it to where limb bud forms c. Competent ectoderm – respond to morphogen, in between dorsal, ventral part of body, form AER d. Bead w/ fgf – indifferent response to cells = chimeric limb form 4. Interaction with AER and PZ influence limb growth a. Transplant experiments i. AER + progress zone ii. Mesoderm – nothing iii. Remove AER – nothing b. AER make sure progress zone go through proliferation c. Pz maintain fgf8 in AER d. No mention of proximal, distal e. PZ maintain specificity by carrying information for structures f. Late on early = less proliferation = limb only forms distal parts (only info left in progress zone) g. New to late = anything in late will stay there, new has all information = duplication of structures 5. Gradients a. Morphogen – give precise 3D and positional information i. Tell cell where it is depending on what is around it and what morphogens are hitting it = influence gene expression, mobility of cell 6. Specification a. Autonomous – specified before large scale cell migration b/c depend on cytoplasm factors b. Conditional – after cell migration b/c depend on morphogens c. Syncitial – no cells yet but uneven distribution of cytoplasm i. After cell,
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