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lecture 1-4.docx

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BIOL 308
Bruce Wolff

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LECTURES 1-4 1. What information could you obtain from a genetic approach of studying mutants defective in a particular process? -the potential function and “importance” of the protein  identification/isolation/survival of mutants -how many genes are involved in a certain process -order of these genes (proteins) in the process by applying genetic approach (complementation analysis) -interaction between different genes (proteins) by using genetic approach (genetic suppression) 2. How would you define permissive conditions in respect to temperature sensitive mutants? -permissive conditions are the temperatures at which the mutants can survive and grow 3. Define (or compare and contrast): a) gene expression; transcription; replication; translation; b) gene; allele -Gene Expression: the processes through which the information carried by a gene is converted into an observable product (either RNA or protein) -Transcription: the process of copying DNA to RNA by enzymatic processes -Replication: the process of copying a double stranded DNA molecule (DNA synthesis) -Translation: the process that converts an mRNA sequence into a chain of amino acids that form a protein -Gene: the functional unit of heredity; the entire DNA sequence necessary for the synthesis of a RNA molecule or functional polypeptide (it includes coding and regulatory regions) -Allele: different version of the same gene 4. Explain by using your own words the meaning/significance of gene expression. -gene expression is the conversion of a sequence of DNA into a final observable product (either RNA or protein) -it is important since all living things rely on proteins to function and survive  everything in/about the living cell/organism is about proteins -regulation of gene expression allows cells to produce gene products when needs -properties of expression give rise ot organism phenotypes 5. What are the roles of model organisms in molecular biology studies? Choose two model organisms and explain your reasoning. -model organisms help us understand (at a basic molecular level) how something affects/alters cells and the organism in general; can be extrapolated to more complex organisms -used for the study of another organism Escherichia coli Drosophila -short reproductive period -useful for genetic experiments -simple -developmental studies  body plan formation -relatively cheap -relatively small -easy to maintain -cheap -lots of data available -easy to maintain -4 million bp -lots of data available -4000 different proteins -first to be extrapolated to higher mammals -divides every 20-60 minutes -simple nutritional requirement 6. What are three main functions of DNA? Explain the importance of each of them. -stores information – sequence of bases codes for proteins, RNAs, regulatory signal -replicates faithfully – semiconservative replication is basis of reproduction and cell growth -ability to mutate – basis of evolution and allelic variation 7. What is (are) the role(s) of phosphodiester bonds in DNA structure? What is (are) the role(s) of hydrogen bonds in DNA structure? What is (are) the role(s) of hydrophobic interactions in DNA structure? -phospho-diester bond: bond between covalent sugar and phosphate, forms linkage between adjacent nucleotides in nucleic acid , dictated polarity of strand -hydrogen bonds keep the two strands held together – complementary base pairing -the hydrophobic interaction helps stabilize the molecule , responsible for stacking interactions 8. What noncovalent interactions are involved in maintaining the double-helical conformation of DNA? - Van der Waals interactions - Hydrophobic interactions - Ionic interactions - Hydrogen bonding 9. Learn to recognize nitrogenous bases (A,T,G,C,U). 10. Describe Meselson-Stahl experiment and explain how it showed that DNA replication is se
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