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University of Waterloo
BIOL 308
Bruce Wolff

HINTSgene vs genomeogene the entire DNA sequence necessary for the synthesis of a functional RNA or polypeptide including regulatory and coding regionsogenome all genes carried by a single gamete the complete set of genetic information from a genetic systemoperon vs operatorooperon segment of genomic DNA which consists of structural genes and adjacent regulatory sequences which are necessary in the same metabolic pathway that are controlled as a unitooperator a cis element responsible for binding of the repressor in an operoneffector vs ligandoeffector small molecules that change protein conformation upon binding ie inducers corepressorsoligand a triggering molecule that is able to bind to form a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purposeinducer vs activatoroinducer trans factors that bind and inactivate repressorsoactivator trans factors that bind and activate enhancersactivator vs enhanceroactivator trans factors that bind enhancer to increase binding of RNAP positive controloenhancer cis elements for binding of activators positive controlrepressor vs silencerorepressor transacting factor that blocks transcription initiation when bound to the operatorosilencer cisacting element that is a binding site for transcription factors which negatively enhances transcriptionribosome vs Ribozymesoribosome complex of RNA and protein that express mRNA into protein in translationoribozyme RNA molecule that catalyzes a chemical reaction eg peptidyl transferase 23S rRNA transcription vs expressionotranscription the process of copying DNA to RNA by enzymatic processesoexpression the process through which information carried by a gene is converted to observable product ie RNA or proteintrans factor vs transcription factorotrans factor transac
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