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Biol 208 Midterm 1 Notes (intro, module 1-5)

7 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 309
Kyra Jones

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Bio 208 Midterm 1 Notes Denaturation MethodsLower salt concNegative strands repelIncrease tempBreaks hydrogen bondsIncrease pHChanges charge on hydrogen bondsCrosslinking Base pair with improper reagentsbasesHydrophobic Reduces DNA stabilitysolventsCG bond has 3 H bonds while AT has 2 H bonds betweensinglestranded DNA absorbs UV light more strongly because no longer have stacking interactions between basesRNA is more susceptible to degradation by pHRNA secondary structures aid in mediating tRNA structure transcriptions terminators mRNA stability and controlling gene expressionall DNA strands are extended in the 53 direction requires 3 OH primers while RNA does not need a primerB helixnormal righthanded 1 turn per 10bpA helixlower water content righthanded 1 turn per 11 bpZ helixCG high salt lefthanded irregular structuretopoisomerasesresponsible for supercoiling of DNAProkaryotesEukaryotespolycistronic mRNAeach gene has its own promoterseveral genes controlled by 1 contains intronspromoter called an operonRNA polymerases do not bind to DNA transcription is carried out by RNA directly and require certain transcription polymerasefactorsRNA Ps bind to promoter and recognize a specific site downstream2 recognition sites at 35 and 10ShineDalgarnoribosome binding site in prokaryotes for the initiation of translation steadystate of proteinamount of protein produced from a transcript is a function of the rate of protein synthesis and rate of protein degradationcoding regionORF DNA that encompasses the sequence from the start to stop codon including introns in eukaryotescoding sequence exons actually translated into a proteinModule 1 Studying Biology at a Molecular Levelgenetic approachinitial studies of development or physical processesbiochemical approachanalyze proteins that can be measured in vitrobioinformaticscomputer analysis of nucleic acid and protein sequences as well as accessing the data from genomewide experiments usedGenetic Approach
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