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Final

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 359
Professor
Jonathan Witt
Semester
Winter

Description
BIOL359Evolution Winter 2013 Topic 12 Kin SelectionSocial BehaviourSocial Interactions involve 2 individuals Actor carrying out actionRecipient on the receiving end of the behaviourSocial interactions impact on fitness 4 o Mutualism Fitness gains for both participants o Altruism Fitness loss for the actor and gain for the recipient o Selfishness Fitness loss for the recipient and gain for the actor o Spite Fitness loss for both participantsAltruismInclusive Fitness Altruism was a Paradox of Darwinism o Altruism Select favor traitsbehaviors that increase the survivalfitness of an actors close relatives even if there is a decrease in fitness for the actor o Inclusive fitness 2 components Direct fitnessIndirect fitnessDirect fitness Individuals direct contribution to the next generation through reproductionIndirect fitness Additional reproduction by relatives that results from an actors actions assistance Additional reproductionreproduction that would NOT have been achieved without the assistance provided by the actorKin selection Selection for and spread of alleles that increase indirect fitnessCoefficient of Relatedness r Probability that an allele in the actoran allele in the recipient at a given locus are identical by descent or arose by replication from the same ancestral copy of an allele o Halfsiblings 1 shared parents P that the shared parent gave same allele at a given locus to both the actorthe recipient x 14o Fullsibling 2 shared parents P that the mother and father gave the same allele at a given locus to both the actorthe recipient xx o Cousins P that the parent of actorthe actors auntuncle gave the same allele at a given locus to the actorthe recipient xx 18 Hamiltons rule There will be an increase in an allele for altruistic behavior due to kin selection if BrC0 o B Benefit to the recipient r Coefficient of relatednessC Cost to the actor o BC are measured as survival of offspringEg Prairie Dog Alarm CallsStimulated badger attacksAltruistic trait o If there are kin in the area prairie dogs gave alarm calls o If there are offspring in the area prairie dogs gave alarm calls bit more likely than just pure parents o CooperationMales are less likely to give alarm calls if they moved to a new breeding coterieFemales are more likely to joinhelp chase off other females coming into their coterie if they are more related eg motherdaughter sisters etcEg WhiteFronted BeeEatersHarsh environment only about 50 of those that hatch develops into adulthood Usually there are no space available for the newly developed young adults to form burrowreproduce their own offspringAssist relatives in raising kin o Closely related individuals are identified through immunogenes MHC loci o BeeEaters will invariably help children of adults that are more closely related to them kin Eg Wood Mouse Altruistic SpermFemales mate w multiple males in quick successionLarge testes in males due to sperm competition sperm form trains by hooking w each others headflagellum sperm train swims much faster than individual spermsfor fertilization to occur the sperm train must break up o Sperms near the middleback undergoes acrosomal reactionSelfsacrifice so the sperm at the front can go fertilize the egg Eg Cannibalistic Tadpoles o Tadpoles develop into 1 of 2 morphotypesCannibalistic Large jawsbig teeth will eat omnivorous tadpoles of the same speciesOmnivorous Smaller tadpoles
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