Study Guides (238,294)
Canada (115,060)
Biology (1,065)
BIOL 359 (29)

Evolution Midterm 1 Review

18 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
BIOL 359
Jonathan Witt

Evolution Midterm 1 ReviewIntelligent Design Theory Is It Science The intelligent design is a scientific theory which holds that biological complexity is inconsistent with Darwinian evolution and can only be explained by intelligent design This theory has been controversial due to the attempts of some school boards to add it to the required curriculum The school board also held that a disclaimer should be read in science class stating that Darwins theory of evolution is not a fact and has inexplicable gaps To determine whether this is true we must examine the terms used to describe the theory of evolution and compare their vernacular and scientific usesFactin science a fact is an observation that has ben repeatedly confirmed and for all practical purposes is accepted as true Truth in science however is modifiable and never finalScientific Hypothesisin science a hypothesis is a tentative statement about the natural world leading to deductions or predictions that are testable If the deductions are verified it becomes more probable that the hypothesis is correct If the deductions are incorrect the original hypothesis may be abandoned or modifiedLawin science a law is a descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under specified circumstancesTheoryin science a theory is a wellsubstantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that incorporates facts laws and tested hypotheses Importantly theories must be falsifiable there must be means of demonstrating that they are wrong and internally consistent The Origin of Intelligent Design Intelligent design finds its origins in William Paley who introduced the notion of a designer or watchmaker Later this theory has evolved based on the paradigm of irreducible complexity systems composed of several interacting parts which contribute to its basic function wherein the removal of an one part causes the system to effectively cease functioning It has been argued that such systems could not have arisen by selection because they cannot have a functional precursor Famously the bacterial flagellum has been given as an example However flagella exist such as the eel sperm flagellum which function despite the lack of many of the parts which comprise the bacterial flagellum Is Intelligent Design a Scientific Theory Intelligent design presupposes that any complex structure must be the result of an intelligent designer but no tests of this are offered Methods by which this theory can be tested do not1 exist and it is not falsifiable disqualifying it as a scientific theory Scientists pose two questions about intelligent design 1 If we observe a biological structure that is complex must we evoke the existence of something that is by necessity more complex its existence This question demonstrates the underlying internal inconsistency of the intelligent design theory 2 Why are the designs so lousy The theory of intelligent design cannot possible account for imperfections in design such as the human appendix and the overall imperfect human body In sum intelligent design is a theory lacking any tested hypotheses unsubstantiated by data observation or experimentation It is internally inconsistent and unfalsifiable Therefore it cannot be regarded as a scientific theory Evolution and Faith Contrary to popular belief science has nothing to say about the existence of God or about spirituality Nor does the theory of evolution by natural selection justify immoral behavior It describes the way the world is not the way it should be in contrast with the naturalistic fallacy which states that the way things are is the way they should beA Short History of Evolution Evolution Before Darwin Evolutionary biology essentially began in 1859 with the publication of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin However previously to that Anaximander in Ancient Greece Empedocles and Plato all developed theories of origins different than special creation as far back as 6 century BC Aristotle developed Platos initial concept that all natural phenomena are imperfect representations of the true essence of an ideal unseen world envisioning a static world in which a Deity had created fixed essences which are templates for all species He envisioned a scale of nature Scala Naturae which began with inanimate matter and ended with the most perfect beings Christianity suggested that this perfect being is the humanthe prevailing belief during Darwins time The Enlightenment Carolus Linnaeus established the framework for modern classification the binomial system in an attempt to reveal Gods pattern through classifying different organisms Jean Baptiste Lemarck then introduced for the first time the idea of descent with modification by publishing his theory of use and disuse which suggested that characteristics acquired during ones lifetime can be passed on to offspringthe first proposed mechanism of evolution Darwins grandfatherErasmus Darwinalso proposed that species are modified descendants of earlier forms George Cuvier disagreed proposing the Earths features had been primarily modeled by great catastrophes that resulted from forces that no longer operate todaythe theory of catastrophism This was an attempt to reconcile geological history and the age of the Earth with Biblical genealogies However this theory was challenged by James Hutton2
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 359

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.