1. Why are zebrafish and frog embryos often used to study animal physiology?
2. What is comparative physiology, and what is its purpose? What are the 2 central questions of
3. What is environmental, ecological, and evolutionary physiology?
4. Describe the top-down and bottom-up approaches.
5. Give a broad example of structure-function relationships.
6. What is homeostasis? Give an example.
7. Describe the difference between a homeostatic regulator and a conformer.
8. What are feedback-control systems? Give an example.
9. What are acute, chronic, and evolutionary changes? What is the difference between acclimation
10. Describe unity in diversity. Give an example. What is August Krogh’s principle?
11. What are phylogenetic, developmental, and environmental functions?
12. Describe the three processes of homeostasis.
13. What is a specific adaptation to deal with water in humans?
14. Define solvent, solute, and solution.
15. What are osmotic pressure and osmolarity? Describe how osmotic pressure is controlled.
16. On what 4 factors does the rate of diffusion depend?
17. Differentiate between osmolarity and tonicity.
18. How is cholesterol helpful in membranes?
19. Describe how membrane conformation is dependent on temperature.
20. What are the two main types of membrane proteins?
21. What are the 3 main types of transport, and what distinguishes between them? Describe each.
22. What are the 3 main carrier types used in facilitated diffusion?
23. Describe the two types of active transport.
24. Describe electrical gradients, including electroneutral and electrogenic carriers.
25. What is membrane potential? Equilibrium potential?
26. Describe ionic and osmotic challenges in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments.
27. What is the name for organisms able to cope with a narrow range of external salinities? A wide
28. What are perturbing, compatible, and counteracting solutes?
29. Describe the differences in permeability between amphibians and fish.
30. Describe the mechanism for active salt transport.
31. Describe 4 characteristics of transport epithelia.
32. What are 2 routes epithelial cells use for the transport of solutes? List 4 common transporters.
33. Describe teleost gills as they relate to ion transport. What are 3 main differences between
freshwater and seawater teleosts?
34. Describe saltwater-freshwater transitions. What is Parr-Smolt transformation or smoltification?
35. What are the two organic osmolytes that make marine elasmobrachs hyperosmotic? Describe.
36. Describe the use of rectal glands in ionic regulation.
37. Describe osmoregulation in terrestrial vertebrates, birds, and reptiles/amphibians.
38. How do desert animals cope with water loss? What are some adaptive traits to reduce respiratory
39. Describe freshwater osmoregulation and seawater osmoregulation.
40. What are 4 adaptations (behavioural or physiological) of desert animals to deal with extreme
aridity and an absence of freshwater? Give an example.
41. What are 5 adaptations of marine mammals to deal with water loss? 42. How do terrestrial arthropods decrease water loss / increase water intake?
43. What are 2 major methods of ion conservation in invertebrates?