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Final

Final Exam Review.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 370
Professor
Dinu Nesan
Semester
Fall

Description
Central Questions of Animal Physiology For any adaptive trait: -what is the mechanism?  a cellular mechanism (hormones, proteins, transporters, etc.) -what is the origin? -may ask when the adaptation is, what is its importance, example of animals, etc. Osmolarity vs. Tonicity -tonicity is a subjective measure; a solution that is hypotonic on 1 cell is not necessarily hypotonic on another (it depends on the membrane and how the cell changes) -you can’t know its tonicity without putting the cell into a solution and examining what happens -osmolarity is an objective measure (concentration of solute in a solvent) -number of particles/L Cell Volume Regulation -volume decrease and increase are reactive measure -these are responses to changes in cell volume -RVD only occurs AFTER the cell has experienced an unexpected increase in cell volume (ex. by being placed in a hypotonic medium causing water to move into the cell) -try to get ions out of the cell so waters will passively follow -need to know 1 or 2 protein transporters that are important Active Salt Transport -using an ussing chamber that measures 2 things to try and identify the movement of ions across a single frog epithelial layer -measure both current (movement of ions) and potential (charge difference on either side of the membrane)  can tell if ions are moving and if one side is more positive/negative than the other -using electrical measurements to identify the movement of ions across a membrane -used 2 pharmacological inhibitors: ouabain and amiloride -applied each alone or in combination to either side of the membrane -found that ouabain blocks Na/K ATPase only on the serosal side -found that amiloride blocks sodium channels on the basolateral side -once you get an increased gradient of sodium within the cell, a transporter allows sodium out of the cell across the other side -ATPase creating a gradient to allow sodium in, and a channel to let it out the other side Teleost Gills (CCM) -countercurrent mechanism  so that 2 liquids or gases flow in opposing directions to set up the most efficient transport of materials from 1 to another without using active transport -gills: blood and water flowing in opposite directions to exchange gases -as blood reaches gills, it’s low in O2 and will accept O2 from water just reaching the gills -when blood has the lowest possible O2, it comes up against the water that has the lowest O2 -at this point, at least some oxygen will move from water to blood -at the point in the blood where O2 is high, O2 content of water is also at its highest -at all points, there is always a little more oxygen in the water than in the blood (so there is always movement of oxygen from water to blood) Salt Glands -lumen of salt gland moving in 1 direction, and blood in the opposite direction -the first regions of the blood that have the most ions to be excreted line up next to the regions of the salt gland that are about to pool into the central duct -highest amount of salt in blood is in contact with highest amount of salt in lumen of salt gland -at all points along the salt gland, it always has a little bit less salt than the blood (so there is constant movement of salt from blood to salt glands) -exchange purely by facilitated diffusion (NO active transport) Lecture 11: Metabolism Metabolic Rate During Exercise -EPOC: elevated post exercise oxygen consumption -the oxygen debt that’s left over after you actually stop -the animal is not breathing fasting enough to meet its metabolic demands; so at the beginning, it is undergoing anaerobic metabolism (and build up harmful byproductions such as lactate, etc. that need to be recycled) -pay-as-you-go-phase  not producing any extra metabolic byproducts; oxygen meets needs -after stop of activity, there’s a debt phase where you need to repay/recycle the metabolic byproducts that were produced in anaerobic metabolism at the beginning of exercise -the longer the phase of anaerobic metabolism, the longer the EPOC phase is -once the activity is over, the animal is still breathing heavily until it can recycle on the anaerobic waste products Metabolism Summary -know what we use the metabolic processes for -homeostatic disruptions cost energy to maintain levels -know different methods (open/closed respirometry, …..mass balance, calorimetry) -SMR vs. BMR -metabolic transitions (ex. salmon  the way they use specific energy substrates at different times) -larger animals have less exchange with the environment due to their low SA:V ratio -losing large % of energy radiated off as heat, so larger animals are more efficient Adjusting Metabolism -LISTEN TO RECORDING Hypometabolism & Body Temperature -Arrhenius equation  chemical reactions are temperature dependent -higher temperatures, greater kinetic energy, more collisions of molecules -every metabolic reaction is like a chemical reaction  so if you lower temperature, metabolic reactions decrease, and vice versa -Q10 was how we measure if something is a true hibernator -hallmark of hibernators are active depressions of metabolic rate, not just due to temp decrease -if an animal isn’t undergoing metabolic suppression (not actively downregulating enzymes/metabolic processes), then Q10 should be constant no matter what range of temp you choose (since all changes are due only to temp changes) -if there’s a change in Q10, there must be an active suppression of metabolic rate -daily heterotherm  no matter what temp range, Q10 is always the same; temp decreases, and enzymatic activity decreases -hibernators  begin to undergo their hibernating mechanisms and actively suppress processes in the body -if you see a difference in Q10 the further you go down in temperature, you know they don’t only change Q10 due to temperature, but also due to active suppression -know examples and explain torpor, hibernation, estivation Sample Short Answer Question Explain why the question of whether bears are hibernators is in dispute. Explain the arguments for and against and state what the general consesnsus is, are bears hibernators or not? Do Bears Hibernate? -reason against  they don’t experience a big decrease in temp and are easily awoken from hibernation -reason for  they undergo a big decrease in metabolic rate (different Q10 values @ diff. temp ranges) -consensus: they are hibernators b/c they undergo metabolic depression Nephrons in Other Vertebrates -birds are mixture of reptile and mammalian set up of the kidney
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