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Study Questions Set 5 - Respiratory, Reproduction.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 371
Professor
Heidi Engelhardt
Semester
Winter

Description
Study QuestionsRespiratory material not tested on midterm 21What is the dive responseDoes it describe the physiological adaptations of seals to a typical diveaThe Dive ResponseiConstriction of arterioles leading to skin muscle kidneys and gut1Force all blood towards blood and heartbrain is dependent on aerobic metabolism and cannot survive O 2deprivation for longiiContraction of smooth muscles of the spleen1Forces stored RBC rich with O out into circulation2iiiBrachycardia1Matches reduced circulatory demand2Dependent on dive duration in voluntary divesbPhysiological adaptations of seals to a typical diveiGraded Brachycardia Unlike dive responseiiIncrease Ostores2 iiiDecrease O demand decrease metabolic rate2ivKeep dives shorter than ADL1Maximize underwater hunting time by replenishing O 2stores within a few minutesvCO regulation21Less ventilary response to accumulated CO22Higher buffering capacity2Describe the strategies used by marine mammals to cope with the respiratory challenges of divingaAvoidance of Nitrogen Narcosis and Decompression SicknessiCollapse alveoli completely pushing air back into conducting airways of the lungs which do not participate in gas exchange bIncrease Ostores hemoglobin high levels of myoglobin lungs2 cReadjust Odemands2 dExpel RBC stored in spleeneDive response Forced lab diving avoiding predator in real life Study QuestionsReproduction3What is meant by rtype versus Ktype reproductive strategiesGive an example of eachaRTypeiReproduction as rapidly as possibleiiMany offspring little parenting careinvestmentiiiEx InsectsbKTypeiDelay reproduction until late in life1To ensure strength to tolerate cost of nurturing youngiiProduce few offspring heavy parental investmentiiiEx Humans2What is parthenogenesisGive an example in an invertebrate and vertebrate speciesaVirgin birth using ova and female reproductive system to produce haploid or diploid offspringbFemale gamete differentiates into embryos without fertilizationcEx Invert Aphids Vert Komodo dragon4Describe sex determination systems in vertebratesaSex Determination by Genotypesubsequent hormonal signalsiXY or ZW systems presence or absence of sexdetermining chromosome1XYMale is heterogametichumans2ZWFemale is heterogametic birds butterfliesbSex Determination by EnvironmentiSex is determined by physical and chemical environment of developing embryo PLUS levels of hormones in yolk varying seasonallyiiTemperaturepivotal temp5050 sex ratio1Some Turtles High tempfemales2Some Lizards Low tempfemales3All Crocodiles LowHigh tempfemales5Comparecontrast the two major genetic sex determination systems in vertebrates with examples of vertebrate groups using each
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