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BIOL 444 (4)
Midterm

BIOL 444 Midterm: BIOL 444 Midterm
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26 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 444
Professor
Christine Dupont

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Description
BIOL 444 Midterm Lecture 1 Medical microbiology: - didnt think that disease came from microbes air, water - epidemics happen when it got warm b/c mosquitos but they thought it came from the air b/c it was smelly - Pasteur said disease comes from microbes - microbially caused diseases have influenced history: Black death, smallpox, AIDS - typhus caused by intracellular parasite spread by body lice in the trenches fever *Dont memorize microbial disease on war table* Lecture 2 Epidemic: more people that get the disease than you would normally expect Pandemic: large scale swine flu, international, covers large areas of the globe - doesnt necessarily kill more people than normal though Disease often blamed on the gods: some people are immune, some people get it and survive - was a good way of saying how some people were chosen by the gods Hippocrates: believed in balance, said disease comes from within - 4 humors: phlegm (lungs, brain), blood (liver), black bile (spleen), yellow bile (gall bladder) - its all about balance - removed blood by leaches Jenner: made a vaccine but didnt know what he was making it against, Germ theory hadnt even come out yet - so did Pasteur Pasteur: Germ theory - disease, food spoilage - microbes responsible - logical - rabies vaccine Koch: worked a lot with anthrax, used his postulates to show that the anthrax bacteria is the cause of anthrax 1. Microbe present in every case but absent in healthy o We all carry pathogens and might not exhibit any symptoms o Works well for some organisms primary pathogens o Step throat can stay with you forever 2. Microbe isolated from host and grown in pure culture o Only 1% of bacteria can be cultured o not yet culturable o intracellular parasites mycobacterium leprae, chlamydia, T. pallidum, viruses o toxins 3. Pure culture must produce same disease in new host o Ethical concerns o Warren and Marshall linked H. pylori to stomach cancer and ulcers 4. Same microbe must be re-isolated in pure culture o Disease isnt always just related to the presence of the microbe - try to use the postulates for every disease but it doesnt always work Infection: successful colonization of the body by a microbe capable of causing damage to the host - colonization: not always infection Disease: change in normal heath to an abnormal state where health is diminished - clinical symptoms: not measurable but observable - clinical signs: measurable or observable - pneumonia is the disease but the organism can be anything Pathogen: routinely causing disease - obligate pathogen: when infected, you will get an infection - opportunistic: in our surroundings, only causes disease under certain conditions open wounds o P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients o Enterococcus Secondary infection: occurs b/c of another infection Nosocomial infection: hospital infection health care associated infection Purulent: pus dead neutrophils - pyogenic strains cause pus Strep pyrogenes Pyrogenic strain: fever causing - fever happens b/c increasing bodies temp to stop the bacterial enzymes in the microbe Pathogenicity: ability of microbe to cause disease Virulence: intensity of disease rabies is 100% mortality, variola virus is only 50% mortality Virulence factor: product of microbe that enhances pathogenicity - prove inoculate with toxin or stop toxin production in microbe CRISPR - allows it to attach, invade, kill, or damage host Molecular kochs postulates: 1. Gene found only in strains that cause disease 2. Gene must be isolated by cloning 3. Disrupt gene to reduce virulence 4. Gene expressed in host during time of infection process Lecture 3: Emerging disease: wasnt on the radar until recently, increasing in prevalence lyme disease Classic disease: been around for a while, still have them in existence STIs Re-emerging: diseases making a comeback b/c of antibiotic resistance tuberculosis Importance of infectious disease: - Must be a critical mass to allow infectious disease to carry on - herd - if only some, disease will die out if all the people do - can also travel b/w species - compromised humans are more susceptible to disease - zoonoses: reservoir is animals rabies, lyme disease - spillover: comes from animals, and then is transferred to a human where it can be transmitted Recent factors influencing disease: - hygiene - water and sewage treatment - improved nutrition - medical advances - increased proportion of pop thats elderly immunocompromised - travel - human encroachment: humans moving into unpopulated areas where there is lots of wildlife Normal microbiota: mostly G+ves, what youd expect - generally definable community of microbes inhabiting us - state of continual flux, affected by age, diet, nutrition, hormones, health, environment, hygiene - large numbers: GI tract, moist skin, upper respiratory, genitals (Vagina), urinary tract - areas with small numbers arent colonized but arent sterile: lower respiratory, stomach, bladder, uterus - sterile: closed in the body: blood, CSF, synovial fluid, muscles, organs o Synovial fluid: in your joints - 50% of the cells in your body arent your own Predominant and important microbiota of various sites in healthy person: Body site pathogens commensals Skin, distal urethra, external Staphylococcus aureus Propionibacterium acnes, ear, anterior nares diptheroids (Corynebacterium), S. epidermis, viridans streptococci, micrococci, yeast, G+ve Nasopharynx Candida albicans, Strep Viridans streptococci, pyrogenes Neisseria , anaerobes, Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, coagulase ve staph Stomach Helicobacter pylori Transients: Lactobacilli, mouth microbiota Small intestine Clostridia, enterobacteria Lactobacilli, streptococci, bifidobacteria, Bacteroides Colon: When breast-fed None Bacteroides, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, streptococci After weaning Clostridium dfficile, C. Clostridia, Bacteroides, perfringens, E. coli, Candida bifidobacteria, streptococci, albicans Enterobacteriacea, G-ve Vagina: Prepuberty, postmenopausal Candida albicans Skin and colonic microbiota Childbearing Candida albicans Lactobacilli, viridans streptococci Having bad gut microbiota can add 10-15% more calories Vagina: maintain a certain pH - lactobacilli: produce acid keeps a lot of bacteria out and inhibits Candida albicans Know what colonizes what body parts Role of normal microbiota in body: - metabolism of food products o provide essential growth factors o vitamin K + B o colonic fermentation 10% of our calories o herbivores - normal devo of digestive system: o gnotobiotic animals smooth villi-free intestine o nutrient absorption impaired - protection against infection: o exclusionary effect competition o production of inhibitory substances bacteriocins, acids, antibiotcs - priming of immune system: o gnotobiotic vs normal animal models allergies, autoimmune disease o normal microbiota is training the immune system to react to microorganisms - balance b/w host and normal microbiota: o shifts in populations can cause problems o opportunistic infections - symbiotic, commensal/mutualistic status Lecture 4:
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