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Midterm

BIOL444 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Clostridium Perfringens Alpha Toxin, Semisynthesis, Interleukin 13Premium

26 pages74 viewsFall 2017

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL444
Professor
Christine Dupont
Study Guide
Midterm

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BIOL 444 Midterm
Lecture 1
Medical microbiology:
- did’t thik that disease ae fro iroes – air, water
- epidemics happen when it got warm b/c mosquitos but they thought it came from the
air b/c it was smelly
- Pasteur said disease comes from microbes
- microbially caused diseases have influenced history: Black death, smallpox, AIDS
- typhus caused by intracellular parasite spread by body lice in the trenches fever
*Do’t eorize iroial disease o ar tale*
Lecture 2
Epidemic: more people that get the disease than you would normally expect
Pandemic: large scale swine flu, international, covers large areas of the globe
- does’t eessaril kill ore people tha oral though
Disease often blamed on the gods: some people are immune, some people get it and
survive
- was a good way of saying how some people were chosen by the gods
Hippocrates: believed in balance, said disease comes from within
- 4 humors: phlegm (lungs, brain), blood (liver), black bile (spleen), yellow bile (gall
bladder)
- its all about balance
- removed blood by leaches
Jeer: ade a aie ut did’t ko hat he as akig it agaist, Ger theor
had’t ee oe out et
- so did Pasteur
Pasteur: Germ theory
- disease, food spoilage
- microbes responsible
- logical
- rabies vaccine
Koch: worked a lot with anthrax, used his postulates to show that the anthrax bacteria is
the cause of anthrax
1. Microbe present in every case but absent in healthy
o We all carry pathogens and might not exhibit any symptoms
o Works well for some organisms primary pathogens
o Step throat can stay with you forever
2. Microbe isolated from host and grown in pure culture
o Only 1% of bacteria can be cultured
o ot et ulturale
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o intracellular parasites mycobacterium leprae, chlamydia, T. pallidum,
viruses
o toxins
3. Pure culture must produce same disease in new host
o Ethical concerns
o Warren and Marshall linked H. pylori to stomach cancer and ulcers
4. Same microbe must be re-isolated in pure culture
o Disease is’t alas just related to the presee of the irobe
- tr to use the postulates for eer disease ut it does’t alas ork
Infection: successful colonization of the body by a microbe capable of causing damage
to the host
- colonization: not always infection
Disease: change in normal heath to an abnormal state where health is diminished
- clinical symptoms: not measurable but observable
- clinical signs: measurable or observable
- pneumonia is the disease but the organism can be anything
Pathogen: routinely causing disease
- obligate pathogen: when infected, you will get an infection
- opportunistic: in our surroundings, only causes disease under certain conditions open
wounds
o P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients
o Enterococcus
Secondary infection: occurs b/c of another infection
Nosocomial infection: hospital infection health care associated infection
Purulent: pus dead neutrophils
- pyogenic strains cause pus Strep pyrogenes
Pyrogenic strain: fever causing
- fever happens b/c increasing bodies temp to stop the bacterial enzymes in the microbe
Pathogenicity: ability of microbe to cause disease
Virulence: intensity of disease rabies is 100% mortality, variola virus is only 50%
mortality
Virulence factor: product of microbe that enhances pathogenicity
- prove inoculate with toxin or stop toxin production in microbe CRISPR
- allows it to attach, invade, kill, or damage host
Moleular koh’s postulates:
1. Gene found only in strains that cause disease
2. Gene must be isolated by cloning
3. Disrupt gene to reduce virulence
4. Gene expressed in host during time of infection process
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Lecture 3:
Eergig disease: as’t o the radar util reetl, ireasig i prealee lyme
disease
Classic disease: been around for a while, still have them in existence STIs
Re-emerging: diseases making a comeback b/c of antibiotic resistance tuberculosis
Importance of infectious disease:
- Must be a critical mass to allow infectious disease to carry on
- herd
- if only some, disease will die out if all the people do
- can also travel b/w species
- compromised humans are more susceptible to disease
- zoonoses: reservoir is animals rabies, lyme disease
- spillover: comes from animals, and then is transferred to a human where it can be
transmitted
Recent factors influencing disease:
- hygiene
- water and sewage treatment
- improved nutrition
- medical advances
- ireased proportio of pop that’s elderl – immunocompromised
- travel
- human encroachment: humans moving into unpopulated areas where there is lots of
wildlife
Normal microbiota: mostly G+ves, hat ou’d epet
- generally definable community of microbes inhabiting us
- state of continual flux, affected by age, diet, nutrition, hormones, health, environment,
hygiene
- large numbers: GI tract, moist skin, upper respiratory, genitals (Vagina), urinary tract
- areas ith sall uers are’t oloized ut are’t sterile: loer respirator,
stomach, bladder, uterus
- sterile: closed in the body: blood, CSF, synovial fluid, muscles, organs
o Synovial fluid: in your joints
- 50% of the cells in your body are’t our o
Predominant and important microbiota of various sites in healthy person:
Body site
pathogens
commensals
Skin, distal urethra, external
ear, anterior nares
Staphylococcus aureus
Propionibacterium acnes,
diptheroids
(Corynebacterium), S.
epidermis, viridans
streptococci, micrococci,
yeast, G+ve
Nasopharynx
Candida albicans, Strep
pyrogenes
Viridans streptococci,
Neisseria , anaerobes,
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