BUS 111W Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Pest Analysis, Canada, Walmart

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BUS 111W
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Chaper 7: Political-legal factors
1. Laws, regulations the gov’t’s role is to serve the people, rules and regulations to serve the people
2. Taxes used to influence our behaviour (ex. Spending on tobacco, alcohol, etc.) and used to better
society
3. Trade agreements or conditions motivates company to improve, better pricing for consumers
4. Political system: determines how involved the government is laissez faire vs. communism
5. Political stability: how predictable are government decisions?
How government influences business
Government can create incentives, constraints, or support/bail out when needed
Affects uncertainty, risk and constraints/costs faced by firm
How does this create a threat/opportunity for a business?
Ex: in Australia, there’s a law that makes cigarette companies package their products in brown boxes
with plain writing. No logos or images or fancy things allowed less attractive to people\
The Gov’t can be the following entities…
Customer: by buying products and services, governments help firms be successful.
In some cases, government can be the most important consumer
Competitor: Canada Post, CBC Crown Corporations, government owned
Government can directly compete with firms by regulating the prices you can charge
Regulator/law maker
Regulates business activity: CRTC, Wheat Board
What business can or cannot do
Wheat board: regulates the price farmers receive for their wheat
CRTC: regulates all aspects of Canadian broadcasting system
Purpose
1. Promotes competition: Competition Act ensure healthy level of competition, that there are
enough different organizations in the environment for a healthy competitive environment, and
that everyone is playing fairly with respect to price prohibits acts that reduce competition
2. Promote Innovation intellectual property rights
3. Protects consumers: Hazardous Products Act requires certain products to be labelled, and the
Tobacco Act prohibits cigarette advertising on billboards and in stores, etc.
4. Achieve social goals: promotes well-being of society; universal health care, education
5. Protect the environment: Canada Water Act (controls water quality in fresh and marine waters),
Fisheries Act: Nobody owns the environment so government must act in behalf of the
environment. Designed to ensure protection.
Taxation agent
Collected by all 3 levels of government clear laws on which level can tax what
2 types of taxes: personal and business
Revenue taxes: levied to provide revenue to fund various services and programs
1. Progressive: %tax paid increases with income
2. Regressive: consistent, sales tax, based on value of underlying activity
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3. Restrictive: restrict/influence consumption ex: gas tax
Provider of incentives and financial assistance
Subsidies: government of Canada offers significant subsidies to film management companies. You
use subsidies instead of tax breaks because they’re companies outside Canadian jurisdiction so they
are not influenced by tax anyway reduce their cost
Tax breaks: beneficial to companies in local jurisdiction who are affected by taxes to encourage
companies to locate in a certain area
Support services: when a government wants to assist companies in making certain choices, they
offer support services. Ex: help with foreign trade; give advice to small businesses/start-ups.
Bail outs: helping companies come back to life Ex: GM supporting American car manufacturers.
It’s better to let them continue to operate than to let them collapse and then deal with the
unemployment later.
Provider of essential services:
highways, armed forces, police and fire department, hospitals, education
don’t want your army to be for a profit group run be some company same with police/fire
department because you need them to make the right choices
- they know you’re covered by insurance, so they’re unmotivated without the government
The only reason the 407 exists is because it is parallel to the 401 and so if there is traffic on 401,
people use 407 instead
Health services exist by keeping cost down non-profit organizations. For profit-increased costs,
cannot afford to fund it
Education: non-profit, any revenues get put away
Intellectual Property Rights
What: legal rights that result from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary, and
artistic fields. Grants exclusive rights to the creator
o Most common types are patents, copyright, trademarks
Why? Creates incentive to innovate and be unique by allowing you to benefit from your
innovation/creation
Trademarks
A word or words, a design, or a combination of these, used to identify the goods or services of
one person or organization
Important for customer recognition (businesses identity) and protection/development of a
reputation
o Trademarks is one of your most valuable assets
o Facilitates licensing your trademark
Protection for 15 years; renewable
Legislation = Trade-marks Act
Copyright
Any original literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work
Subject to copyright from the moment is created (no registration necessary)
Owner is creator of the work
o If created while at work = the owner is the employer
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