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CHE102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Salt Bridge, Inert Gas, Oxidation State

Chemical Engineering
Course Code
Perry Chou
Study Guide

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Alteig Euiliiu Coditios Le Chatlie’s Piiple
o When equilibrium is disturbed with change in [], pressure, or temperature, the system
shifts to minimize the change
For [], reaction will shift to other side, i.e if [] product increase, shift to reactants
For pressure/volume, shifts to side to accommodate change, ie increase in
pressure/decrease volume shift to side with less gas molecules
Adding inert gas at constant volume does nothing, but adding inert gas
at constant pressure will increase the volume
For temperature, the value of Kc and Kp changes
Heat released during rxn (exothermic), increase in temp decreases Kc as
system shifts to reactants side
Heat absorbed during rxn (endothermic), increase in temp increase Kc as
system shifts to products side
o Va’t Hoff Euatio (Calculating Kc at a given temperature, or vice versa)
  
Solubility Product Constant
o Ksp is basically Kc for ionic compounds dissolving in water (solid/liquid equilibrium)
o Since this constant only involves the reactants, can easily derive relationship between
Ksp and the amount of reactant
o Common Ion Effect occurs when two ionic compounds dissolves in the same solution
and they share an ion, in this case the shared ion affects the Ksp of both compounds
o Oxidation state/# is related to # of electrons gained or lost when atom interacts with
other atoms in a compound
o Rules
 Ios → oidation number = their charge (i.e Cl-, oxidation # = -1)
 Eleets i eleetal states → oidatio uer =  i.e K, oidatio # = 
3) Total oxidation # of an atom, molecule, or ion = overall charge
*Note for atoms/molecules this # = 0 (i.e N2(g), Na(s), NO2(g))
4) Special cases for some elements
H = + eeptio = hdride → etal oded to Hdroge, eoes -1)
O = -2 (exception = H2O2, becomes -1)
F = -1
Halogens are all -1, unless bonded to more reactive
5) Group 1 metals have O# of +1, group 2 metals have O# +2
When bonding with metals grp 17 O# -1, grp 16 O# -2, grp 5 O# -3
o Redox Reactions are reactions where one agent is oxidized and the other is reduced
Substance which causes oxidation in the other compound is the oxidizing agent
and vice versa
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