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Chem 266: Physical Properties Review Notes

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CHEM 266
Steve Forsey

Intermolecular Forces  The dipole moment increases with increasing electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms  Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules/ions and are much weaker than intramolecular forces; there are several types o Ion-ion o Dipole-dipole o Hydrogen “bonds” o Ion-dipole o Instantaneous induced dipole (or London Dispersion Forces)  “like dissolves like” – structurally similar compounds will form a homogenous mixture o Must have intermolecular forces that are similar in order to dissolve  Protic solvent – has a proton (H) attached to an electronegative atom (N or O) o Can hydrogen bond o Ex. water, alcohols, carboxylic acids  Aprotic solvent – do NOT have a proton (H) attached to an electronegative atom o CANNOT hydrogen bond o Ex. diethyl ether, chloroform, hexane, acetone, acetonitrile, benzene  Energy consumed by breaking bonds (when 2 solution are mixed) + energy released determines of something is soluble or not (energy gained must outweigh the energy required) Boiling Points  Increasing surface area/contact area creates stronger dispersion forces o Ex. 8-carbon chain has larger d
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