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Chem 266: Nomenclature Review Notes

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 266
Professor
Steve Forsey
Semester
Fall

Description
Chem 266 Chapter Review Notes Brandon Yee Fall 2011 1.1 Nomenclature n-Alkanes :straight chain alkanes General Formula: H-(CH ) 2 nor C H n 2n+2 n-Alkanes Molecular Molecular Skeletal (Stick) Description / Notes Structure Formula Structure Methane CH 4 CH 4 N/A  Called “saturated Ethane CH 3CH 3 C2H 6 N/A hydrocarbons” → each carbon atom is attached Propane CH 3CH 2CH 3 C3H 8 to the max. # of hydrogen atoms Butane CH -(CH ) -CH C H 3 2 2 3 4 10  Only contain single Pentane CH 3(CH )2 3H 3 C 5 12 bonds (between carbon atoms) Hexane CH 3(CH )2 4H 3 C 6 14  C-C single bonds heptane CH 3(CH )2 5H 3 C 7 16 allow free rotation Octane CH 3(CH )2 6H 3 C 8 18  Each carbon has a tetrahedral shape Nonane CH -(CH ) -CH C H 3 2 7 3 9 20 (sp hybidized) Decane CH 3(CH )2 8H 3 C10 22 1 Chem 266 Chapter Review Notes Brandon Yee Fall 2011 COMMON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Classification Functional Group Example Notes / Naming Info  -ene  can be cis- (Z) or trans- (E) Alkene  use di-, tri-, etc. right before -ene if more than 1 double bond  -yne Alkyne  linear  use di-, tri-, etc. right before -yne if more than 1 triple bond  replace -e with –ol Alcohol  indicate where the alcohol group is:  ex. 4-methyl-2-pentanol / pentan-2-ol Thiol  Alkyl halide  Acyl halide
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