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Classical Studies
CLAS 104
Ronald Kroeker

Chapter 19 : The Trojan Saga and the Iliad  Zeus disguised himself as a swan and had sex with Leda , they had 4 children ; Helen, Clytemestra, Polydeuces and Castor  Polydeuces ( good boxer) and Castor ( tamer of horses) were know as the Dioscuri ( sons of Zeus) , they were the patron saints of sailors , and lived eternally in Hades  Helen married Menelaus who became the king of Sparta, they had a daughter Hermoine ,  Paris (Alexander) seduced Helen and brought her to Troy , in order to rescue her an expedition was put forth and lead by Agamenon ( Melanus’ brother)  Paris was exposed as a baby by his mother Hecuba because she dreamed that her baby would be the destruction of Troy, he was brought up by a shepard,  attended the wedding of Peleus and Thetis and when Eris and uninvited goddess put an apple on the table with the inscription to the most beautiful , Hera , Athena and Aphrodite all wanted it but Zeus said Paris was to judge who would get the apple , Hera offered him royal power, Athena offered him victory in war, and Aphrodite offered him Helen , he chose Aphrodite and the pretense of the Trojan war were set in place  Leaders of Troy  Electra had two sons with Zeus , Iasion and Dardanus , when Iasion died , Dardanus marries the king of Troy’s daughter , he calls Troy Dardania  Apollo and Poseidon built the walls of Troy for king Laomedon , but he didn’t pay them , so Apollo and Poseidon sent a plague over Troy , that could only be stopped if Laomedon’s daughter Hesoine was exposed, Heracles promised to save her if he got the immortal horses in exchange , Laomedon didn’t pay up so Heracles got mad and captured Troy and gave Hesoine to his friend Telemon , together they had a son named Teucer ( king later on) , Podarces son of Laomedon was the king ( also named Priam )  Priam and Hecuba had 50 sons and 50 daughters, Paris and Hector are the most important sons  Paris loved a healing nymph Oenone ,but he left her for Helen , also shot the arrow that killed Achilles  Hector was a great warrior only better one was Achilles , his wife was Adromache , and child was Astyanax  Helenus another one of Priam’s sons had the gift of prophecy, because snakes licked his ears , was the only son to survive , he married Adromache after Hector died  Cassandra was Priam’s daughter, loved by Apollo , given gift of prophecy , she foretold the fall of troy and the Trojan horse, she was killed by Clytemenstra  Aenas son of Anchises and Aphrodite , descendants will be the future rulers of Troy , saved by Poseidon during the war Anchaean Leaders  Diomedes king of Argos , he stole the Pallas with Odysseus , was Athena’s favorite  Ajax the greater son of Telamon , he is second to Achilles as a warrior , he asked Zeus to let him die in clear sunlight  Ajax the lessor , son of Oileus , raped Cassandra  Idomeneus came as a voluntary ally, represented the Cretes  Odysseus ( Ithaca) pretended to be mad so he didn’t have to go to war, they convinced him to go by putting his son Telemachus (palamedes did this) in front of the plow Odysseus was driving  Achilles attempted to avoid war , he is the son of Peleus and Thetis ( sea goddess)  Peleus is a mortal , was not tempted by Acastus wife so because of his virtue , he was given Thetis , she tried to make her son Achilles immortal by dipping him in the river Styx, only part of his body left vulnerable were his heels , Thetis was a shape changer and ran away from Peleus , Achilles learned from Chiron ( art and music) , she knew her son would die so she dressed him up as a girl and took him to Scyros , brought of with the daughters of the king of the island , he fell in love with one of the daughters ( Deidamia, had a son named Neoptolemus)  Odysseus and Diomedes figured out that Achilles was not a girl since he was interested in armor and not scared off by the war horn  Phoenix and Patroclus : Achilles best friends, Patrolucus could be his lover, Phoneix slept with his dad’s mistress and his dad got mad and made him sterile ,  Artemis was mad at agamenon so before they could set sail a prophet (calchas) said the only way the winds would change , would be if Agamenon sacrificed his daughter Iphiginia  Agamenon had told his daughter that she was to be married to Achilles but this was a lie , the Greeks would fight the war for 9 years until the tenth year where they would secure victory ( similar to prophecy of snakes and chicks said by Calphas)  Philoctes was bit by a scake and abandoned on Lemmos because he smelled, eventually they came to get him and he shot Paris with heracle’s arrow  Achilles wanted to kill Hector because hector killed petrocolus ( gay lover of Achilles) , Athena helped Achilles kills hector , and lets priam take hector’s body ( Apollo heals the body every day)  Achilles killed the amazons , he fell in love with the leader Penthesilea ( who he grieved over), he also killed the Ethiopians ,  Achilles killed Paris , with the help of Apollo  Helenus the son of Priam was captured by the Greeks and he said they needed Philoctetes ( to kill Paris )and Neoptlemus (to kill Priam ) to win the war  Sinon pretended to be betrayed but was just part of the plan to bring the horse in , if you had the horse then you would be protected by Athena Chapter 20: The Returns  Nostoi = the returns , Athena was mad at what happned in troy she created a storm and wrecked a ship , Ajax the lesser gloated that he swam to the rock and survived but Poseion struck him down  Agamenon made it home but was killed by his wife Clytmenstra also killed Cassandra, helped by Aegisthius  Helen escapes and is killed by electra and orestes  Diomedes , came home to a cheating wife ( went to Italy , followers were birds)  Idomeneus same story cheating wife and went to Italy to make cities  Philoctetes , stung by snake guy and killed paris guy ,went to Italy too  Neoptulemeus , Achilles son took the land route back home ruled over molossi  Odysseus remains faithful to his wife Penelope , took ten years to get home, captive with the nymph Calypso for 7 years in Ogygia , lets him go after hermes convinces her  Poseidon does not like him and causes him trouble getting home, Athena helps him  Went to the island of aeae were his men were turned into pigs  Was with circe for a year a witch that told him he had to go to tirisias blind prophet in hades to find out how to get home  Aelous gave odysseus a bag of winds, so he could go home, his men opened the bag just as they were almost home and messed up his plan , ended up back in the land of the lastrygonians where most of his men were eaten  Odysseus defeated polymepheus the Cyclops son of Poseidon , blinding him after making him drunk , hid under his sheep so he could not feel that he was escaping ,Poseidon was after odyesseus after this , told him his name was outis /nodoby  He conqured the sirens by covering his mens ears with wax and he asked them to tie him to the boat so he could hear the siren  Had to sail between Scylla ( 6 headed dog )and Charybids ( whirlpool), strait that he navigated to , went to go closer to Scylla ,  Went to island of thrinacia were his men ate the cattle of the sun , storm caused by zeus and odysseus clung to a tree to acoid charybdis  Went to the island os the phaecians , got stranded there , told them what happened and he ended up back in Ithaca after their help , got here with the help of Leucothea , king of phaeacians ( Alcinous)  Penelope had many suitors she promised she would pick one ,once she finished weaving a burial quilt for laertes , she weved for 3 years , undoing it each night until she got caught the 4 year, by then odisseus had returned with athena’s help and he had disguised himself as a beggar , his swine hand Eumalaus and son Telemachus recognized him , he wanted his wife back , Penelope created a challenge which ever suitor could string odysseus bow and put it through the 12 axe heads would get her hand , odysseus won ,  Penelope circumspect ( epithept) Perseus :  Acrisisus king of argos had one daughter called Danae, Dad told by an oracle that her son would kill him , Acrisuis was scared so he shut her up in her basement , so she couldn’t do it with anyone , zeus came to her in a shower of gold , child was perseus , she hid her baby for 4 years, her dad found out got mad and put her in a chest with the baby and put it in the sea  She was saved by Dictys the brother of the king of Seriphos ( Polydectes) , fell in love with danae , but she was having none of it , Polydectes ordered all the men to bring him horses , perseus said he could bring medusas head ( gorgon’s ) , helped by hermes and athena to
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