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CLAS 201 - TEST 2 NOTES.doc

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Classical Studies
CLAS 201
Nicholas Maes

Classics 201 Test 2 Notes City states 1Athens 2Sparta Athens Located in Attica oThere was a series of smaller towns found within it oSynoecismformation of the city state including all the small townsoAtheniean citizenship can be attained by being born in Attica or if you were born in one of the smaller towns you can vote if you meet the requirementseligibilityoMeticallowed to live there but you cannot vote in AthensoTheseusresponsible for synoecism around 800 BCEKnown as the Athenian polis 800 BCE is when Athens came together probably a kingship basileuskingWithin 50100 years oligarchy comes around rule of a few 750 BCEDivided into 4 citizen categories born into one of these classesoEupatrids nobles Claim decent from Paracles Heracles Zeus semidevine presence Lineage determined either are or nothad to be born in itoGeorgoi farmers People who have owned land in Athens for some time You dont sell land it is your essence that ties you to your city stateLand cannot be taken awaythe backbone of the state They have a tremendous amount to losetherefore they fight in the army oDemiourgoi tradesmen Merchants blacksmiths What they have isnt as unshakable as the above ones oHektemoroi 6 partners thThey go to wealthier farmers and rent their farms and give them a 6 of what they produce They do not own property on the bottom of the ladder Do not participate in the state voting rightsRulersBasileus king oMore a ceremonial functionreligious cultsoImportant because you cant do things unless the gods are on your sideArchon leader of city affairs oReally involved in government oRaises taxes makes decisions about treaties war economy prosecution oYou want to be the archonchief positionoEponymous archongives name to the yearPolemarchos ruler of waroCommands army Thesmothetai 6 people oResponsible for the law because they dont have a written lawoArrange finances oLook after building projects oLower governmental level Officials are elected every 10 years prevents hijacking control of the state Most of the time eupatrids take these positions they are the only ones that can run for the top three positions Thesmothetai 3 from eupatrids 2 from georgoi and 1 from demiurgoioHektemoroi do not participate in anything politicalAreopagus council oAnother dimension needed to sit in government for a longer period of time oConsists of all the members who previously served in the power positions and they are permanently part of this council oArchon discusses most decisions with the council because they are more experienced oMost are eupatrids also acts as judgeslegislativeexecutiveEkklesia general assemblylater becomes name for the churchoAll Athenian males are part of this except the hektemori they do not contributefight to society above age of 18 oHave a say vote for the people in power oLaws are brought up to them and they vote on it oAreopagus nominate to eupatrids ekklesia vote who into which position oNo hecktamoroi dont fight war so not included oStamp of approval or disapproval no debate Once you make a bad decision about a war and you lose horribly they dont trust you anymore and will refuse to fight for you 650700 BCE suddenly something changescurrency is introduced to Greeceobefore they exchanged goods and services othis introduction was highly destabilizing value of money is symbolic opersuading a population that money is worth something is very difficult otake on more debt then they understand and their land gets taken away ostandard to assess someones position in society now becomes very questionable opeople use their own person as collateral fall into slavery oeupatrids that are poor Theogsis of Megara oMegara was similar to Athens oWrites about money oTurned over traditional way of categorizing people in society oComing of a good background becomes useless they wanna know how much money I have in my pocket Not just an Athenian problem but a greek problemEnter the age of the Tyrant tyrant seizes power unconstitutionally dictatory is given power through constitutional means ex Hitler a number of people are hijacking power for themselvesLecture Two further you are from mesepatameia the more primative you are and longer it takes to become civilized ogreek neightbours to their east taught them a lot iraq Stasis civil strife oCivil war oInto of currency everything is thrown up in the air lower class getting rich questioning old system people are losing their lands and people are being sold into slaveryCitizens are fighting with each other The age of the Tyrant tyrannos seizes power unconstitutionally Kylonalmost grabs leader of greece
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