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CLAS 201 - TEST 3 NOTES.doc

18 Pages

Classical Studies
Course Code
CLAS 201
Nicholas Maes

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Clas-201  Test 3 Notes Dionysus  presence means place is exploding with greenness Tragedy starts with Homer  50% has debated tragedy (illiad & odeyssey) - speaks commenting on the action that the greeks are interested in (dialogue) - originally the plays were designed to be preformed for one day only - everybody would attend  civic duty to attend these plays Origins of Tragedy - starts with the greeks - Thespsis  drama starts with him o Before him, commitment to dionysis is shown by singing the didyramb  Groups of people sing this o Aristotle tells us Thespsis extemporized on the didyramb  Starts a dialogue between himself and the chorus  Turns into a tragic presentation - Piesistrachus  establishes the dionysia (tragic, dramatic festival) o First person to win was Thespsis - Aeschylus  introduces a second actor - Sophocles  introcuces a third actor - Tragedy  means goat song o Original prize for tragedy was a goat? Goat is associated with dionysis (half goat half man)? - Hypokretis  literally “to answer” o Associated with the word an actor (someone pretending to be something they are not) - Dionysus  in the spring, plants are growing o Previous summer  meeting of officials in Athens and they would select 3 choregos (pay for all the expenses of the production)  Private individuals don’t make money from these plays  But they are expected to help  in return you get boasting rights  Also 3 playwrights being selected – each would be connected to a choregos  Playwrights write 3 tragedies and 1 satyr (lighter play)  Wasn’t necessary that they had to be “part 1, 2, 3”  4 tragedies each o no one works – all shops closed o 1 day  meat distributed  then didyrambs compete against each other  10 chorus’ with 50 people each (500 people)  at the end – one would be the winner o next 3 daysndhe tragic playwrights perform  2 day  playwright performs his 3 tragedies and 1 satry etc. o 5 day  5 comedies (1 play each playwright) o at the end of the dionysia each winner is selected Theatre - build temporary benches on hills (concentric half circles) - Epidauros  permanent theatre (very good accustics) - 12m in diameter would be the orchestra (to dance)  it’s a dancing floor, where the chorus is located, they do a song and dance for you o chorus has 12-15 people o costumed and masked as well as the actors - behind the orhestra there is a little raised stage  Bema - bema actors are located - behind the bema  there would be a building  skene (12-15 feet tall) o store your costumes here, and often the backdrop of where the action is taking place o can be a pair of doors would be where the actors come in and out o not very visual, more relies on the spoken word o Stage equipment:  Ekkuklema (small wheeled platform)  Carry something from inside the skene to outside  Mechane (crane)  On roof of skene, cranes someone from the roof down onto the bema  Deus ex machina (god of the crane)  Sums up the play if it still has loose strings  The god explains everything (wraps up the plot)  Paradoi/exocoi  entrance/exits on either side of the theatre that allow the audience to enter/leave  Also entry/exit for actors  Actor comes from one ramp  close by  Actor comes from the other ramp  meant from a far o Could be a foreigner - Maximum number of actors  3 (max of 3 speaking characters on the stage) o Protagonist – actor 1 o Deuteragonist – actor 2 o Tritagonist – actor 3 - Need to know how to dance/act/sing/project their voices  superstars - They are heavily costumed and always wearing masks  how we tell them apart - Prologos  start of greek tragedy (prologue) o A character says  “here I am … explains what’s going on” o Sets time, place and the general setting (job of program notes) - Parados  song/dance (when the chorus comes in) o Set emotional tone of play with more background information - Episodos  actors involved, they can either talk to the chorus, talk among themselves, or deliver a monologue o 1 episode  something happens (news received, something has come_)  pushes story forward - Stasimon  another choral song o Discuss what happened in the first episode (sing/dance) - 2 episode - 2 stasimon - 3 episode  usually someone gets hurt really bad, dies - conclusion - can be a forth, but usually just a 3rd - exodus  give you some piece of advice (its horrible to be human…) - staisimon is like the curtain drop (breaks between huge events) - usually no fighting scenes - messanger speech  common to report dramatic death scenes o reports events that have taken place Aeschylus (born 525-456) - fought in marathon - best playwrites of the city - was there when Athens was at its most optimistic - “Persians”  defeat of Xerxes - “oresteia”  trilogy of Orestes (only surviving trilogy) o 3 plays-connected to each other:  Agammnon  Choephoroi  Eumenides - Agamemnon (1 play)t o Progos  waiting for king Agamemnon to return from troy  Clytemnestra (wife of Agamemnon) has been up to no good, shes been fooling around with aegisthus (agamemnon’s father treated his brother’s horribly beef here)  Beacon comes on the scene—he’s on his way back! o After Progos-chorus  Clytemnestra comes onto the scene  Agamemnon comes home, his wife greets him  On route to Troy he couldn’t get there and told by his prophet, you have to kill your daughter (iphigenia) if you wanna sail further  On this sail because Helen was taken, and the gods need Agamemnon to go avenge this wrong  Cassandra (daughter of prime) can see the future, but noone would believe her  Apollo wanted to sleep with her, so he bribes her with the gift of prophecy, but she doesn’t wanna sleep with him still, so he makes it so that no one will believe her  She realizes Clytemnestra wants to kill Agamemnon with help of aegisthus  Clytemnestra cuts Agamemnon down with an axe  And she really enjoyed this act of vengeance (pissed about her daughter’s murder) - Choephoroi (2 play) o Orestes comes back and reveils his identity to his sister (electra) and says he must kill his mother (told by Apollo)  Takes his sword and kills his mother o Erinyes (set of goddesses-born from the blood of Uranus thrown)  Seek vengeance on anyone who has done vengeance in the family (particularly child to parent) o Orestes is fleeing these erinyes o Aeschylus is telling us that when justice is left to the individual it’s a vicious cycle rd - Eumenides (3 play) o Miasma (pollution on you) can be stopped in its tracks when you confess to apollo’s priests o Orestes has been purified by Apollo but the erinyes are still after him, he still owes them a debt o Apollo sends orestes off to Athena, she tries the case between the two of them via a jury  Decide orestes is innocent o Erinyes (fury) change to eumenides (kind ones) o Justice does not come about when each man stabs the guy that did wrong to his family, you need an objective law with the state to moniter this o Justice doesn’t come so much from the gods but more from the state Sophocles (496-406) - sees height of Athenian prosperity and lived to see the war between Athens and Spartans – saw Athens start to fall - wrote 123 tragedies – 7 have come down to us o Oedius rex o Antidone o Ajax - Oedius rex o Centered in Thebes – Oedipus is king of thebes  Oedipus defeated the sphinx (mythical creature with a riddle, if you could answer it, spinx would disappear, if you couldn’t she would devour you alive-oedipus answers correctly, a man) o Queen of thebes (jolasta) is single cuz her husband laius disappeared  She gets with Oedipus o Plague breaks out after they have kids (this is where play starts) o Laius was years ago told that you don’t want to get jolasta pregnant because your child will kill you and sleep with your wife  Oedipus is born and exposed o But then he is taken to corenth and raise by merope and polybus o Creon comes back from Delphi (brother of jolasta)  The reason we have this plague is that the murder of Laius hasn’t been found o Teresias comes along (blind prophet) and tells Oedipus that you’re the murder of Laius  Oedipus thinks Creon bribed Teresias to make such a crazy claim o Oedipus is slowly slowly being exposed to the info that would lead him to the truth  He can bury the truth, but he says no, he wants to know o Oedipus is confident and very rational o jolasta comes around and starts to comfort Oedipus in a very motherly way  My husband was killed at a point where 3 roads meet and couldn’t have been killed by my son (which is what I was told by a prophet, hence prophents are nonsense) o Oedipus went to Delphi to consult Apollo because some drunk guy called him a bastard, heard his prophecy, ran away from corenth to avoid his prophecy o jolasta hangs herself because she knows what Oedipus is going to discover  Oedipus is a hero greater capacity than everyone else Euripides (486-406) - not as popular, too experimental, too ahead of his time, much more antagonistic - liked to show lowly people rather than kings and queens 3 plays: - bacchae o if you worship Dionysus (baccus, iambos and zagreus), followers are called bacchae o bacchae perform sparagmos  approach cows and rip them apart o dionysus comes to thebes o pentheus is the king of thebes and he calls him a fake, and is outraged at how captured all the women to get drunk and run off and do weird things o Dionysus visits pentheus as a stranger and asks whether he really doesn’t believe this guy is a god, and pentheus says absolutely not o Dionysus dresses pentheus as a woman and leads them out to the forest to watch the women, and the women rip him to pieces o Agave comes to town and has pentheus’ head on the stick thinking it’s the head of a lion - medea - hippolytus  aphodite tells us hippolytus is a very marvolour human and she is going to destroy him because he is not having sex and therefore is not worshiping her Aristophanes  says the pelapenision war is unjust (not saying all war is unjust) - acharnians (comedy play) o Athens involved in the war vs Spartans  Wants to explain this war has to meaning o dicaeopiolis  this Athenian wakes up and says I don’t want to be at war with Spartan anymore  he says this is my land, and Im at peace with Sparta as of right now  Athenian general passes by and smells his food and he says no you cant have this cuz you aren’t at peace yet. o lamarchus - lysistrata o tired of the war so she goes on a sex strike with her husband, and gathers more Athenian women to do the same  this doesn’t work so she gathers Spartan women to participate in this strike too o strike until they make peace - Parabasis  “coming from the side” (part of comedic plays) o Ceasing of the comedy o Leader comes forth, and takes off his costume and comes and says now this is the serious point I want to make o And then costume comes back on, and comedy continues Aristotle - brings 3 populations together (muslim, jewish, catholic) - greek is a very flexible language, open for philosophy Greek population in asia minor in town of miletus Milesian School - thales o geometer, come up with a way of calculating the height of objects and ways to predict eclipses o he wanted to know what is the primary physical element of the universe (what is it all based on)  proposed water as the basic element  arche  “beginning” – physical element from which the entire universe arises  reduce it to something rational - followed by Anaximenes o intrigued by thales question but disagreed with his answer  arche had to be air  air is more basic from water  more dense the object the more dense the air - Anaximander o The arche has to be unchanging o The arche is “to aperiron” unending quantity that never changes form (infinite)  I guess that means space is infinite too  But then there must be infinite worlds o He felt life started in the sea o And men came from fish Xenophanes - not concerned about the arche - each population tends to see god as a reflection of themselves - but god is eternal and unchanging, he comes in one form o engine that drives the universe has to be one - forms the Eliatic school Pythagrious - of pythagrius’ theorem - all is number - somehow the universe works in proportions and math with unlock these proportions to understand how the universe operates Parmenides  member of the eliatic school - isn’t bothered with whether gods are worthy of worship or not - asks what does the universe consist of o either something exists or it does not o existence is being there in the same state forever (therefore humans don’t exist) - logos  true existence (only true form of our world is a uniformly dense sphere that extends forever) - doxa – opinion based on sense (we THINK humans exist) o very faulty, just an illusion Zeno  Parmenides was his teacher - he proves parmenides was right mathematically - motion = change, there is no motion therefore there is no change - your opinion based on sense says humans move, but your logos tells you that’s impossible o if there isn’t change, then the world that we live in that is based on change doesn’t exist - imagine you want to cross a field, there isn’t any point where there isn’t a midway point, it goes on infinitely. Therefore you can never move Hericlitus - completely disagreed with Parmenides - known as the shadowy one because it was hard to know what he was getting at - says everything flows “all is flux” - you cannot step in the same river twice everything around you is always changing - can use logos to make things make sense and balance them into opposites that cancel each other out  stability - all this chaos, but there is this inflexion point where there is stability Leucippus and his student Democritus - if you look at basic material you can find a permenant unchanging arche - if you take something and cut it in half a million times, there will be a point that you reach this particle that cannot be divided any further  atomoi o it can be moved, but it itself never changes o they are the fundamental unchanging unit of the world Epicurus - believes in the atomists - essentially there are no gods at work in the universe (atheist) - not subject to divine will, rules of nature determine everything else o blind materialism - so what motivates us?  pleasure o highest pleasure  pursuit of philosophy  being just, generous, humane Empedocles - 4 solid elements that never change o earth, fire, water, air o brought together by love and strife in different degrees of this to form everything around us Anaxagoras - if you do have flesh made of these 4 elements, and then separate the 4 elements, you would have non-flesh  doesn’t make sense o therefore everything has to be mixed together o he proposes nous  governing thing that brings all these elements together Sophists  argue how do you get people into office? Train to be a laywer? How do you rise in society? All the guys above were wasting their minds on stupid ideas. Dishonest Sophists teach these things:  Rhetoric  logic develops laws of logic  history  literature want to produce first grade linguists sophistry  think you’re making a good argument, but it’s a bad argument - the greater argument vs the lesser argument  all you have to do is appear to make the right argument, and that will be good enough - Protagonas o Man is the measure of all things. Things as they are and things as they are not o There is no authoritative truth, not reveal truth from god, no inherient population better than the rest o We determine what is just and what is unjust o Comes up with Nomosus (law or custom) vs physis (nature in the raw-unchangable)  Some things you just cannot change (physis)  Nomosus is what we make of nature  We determine what the custom is - Gorgias Socrates - younger contemporary of protegonas and gorgias - there is no way the way we operate in the universe has no certainty - born at height of Athenian democracy - saw the collapse of Athenian empire - fought for Athens - very popular amoung the aristocrats (young Athenians) - originally interested in early philosophy, then decided he was going to talk about how men should live (ethics) - love, virtues etc. are not Nomosus their definitions are unchanging and pure o need to come up with ontology (nature of the university/description of existence) and epistemology (a way of explaining how we know what we know) - Takes us to the Republic o Socrates gets together with men and start to discuss justice  The answers to these questions as ripped apart by him  Justice is in place, when an object is used to fulfill their definition (serves purpose for which it was designed) that is justice o He describes the Ideal State (close to the Spartan state)  Talks about philosophers  should be kings o What is true and what is false? Ontology and epistemology  Theory of Forms  we recognize what the object is because we aren’t really seeing the object but we are looking at the idea of the object, the heart of the object  internal essense o The philosopher is constantly looking to the form not the superficial  Forms are the highest level of reality (eternal unchanging realm)  Use episteme to view the forms  Physical word  lower form of reality  Use doxa (opinion) to view the physical world o Allegory of the Cave  Image a deep dark cave, with a human facing the wall and cant look anywhere else an
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