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Classical Studies
Course Code
CLAS 201
Nicholas Maes

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Department of classics, people, adjects, faculty, 201 - Brief history of ancient Greece Greek miracle - Country is poor, soil is poor, not a lot of wealth, small and under populated - Lots of culture, view of world, invention - Political science – beocracy, democracy, autocracy, oligarchy, theocracy, monarchy - comes from greeks. Polis- city state o People need governing o Artistotle asked which system is better, how many systems can there be, merits and attractions to each. Greeks understand people live differently from each other o No other culture had this - Philosophy – greek term, methodological inquiry. Artistotle. o Logic o Syllogism o Ontology o Ethics – systematic point of view – not religious ethics. rationalisom o Epistemology – how we understand things. How do we know if things are correct o Ideas –theory of ideas – greek word o Science – the world is a cosmos – order, systemaic and organized. So there is a way to understand these not turn to religious text. Rational framework o Math and geometry o Medicine o Bio o Oncology o Cranium o Genetics o Tomos – atom – look at physical world - Entertainment – athletics, o Gymnastics Greek word o Olympics - Made athletic competitions. Who is the fastest. No team competitions – personal competition. Fierce competition. Shortcoming – ego centric, sabotage neighbours, individual glory and excellence o theatre, drama, comedy/tragedy, character, epilogue, protagonist  Greeks came up with plays not common in other ancient populations  Climax, episodes  A part of citizenship to watch. Play role in cosmos  Look at religious stories in plays  Freedom of speech in plays – sometimes gods were good sometimes bad  Challenge norms of authority and not get in trouble o art/artitcheutre, o religion o freedom of speech, higher thinking - renesounce – maximize human potential, give affluence, people can move in directions they choose for themselves – when people realize there’s another way of living looking at Greek text what area: southern italy, and sicliy, - Alexander the great – India, - Generally – Greece and later egypt - Not roman empire a lot smaller Greeks not good at managing large land and government What sources can be relied upon when understanding these people? - Archaeology – Coins(useful for dating certain things), pottery , temples, buildings , cemeteries o Problems – don’t know how to interpret. Don’t know purpose of something. o Can be misleading can interpret in ways that do not make sense need other dimention - Texts – o Homer – ilad/odessy o Philosophers – plato, Artistotitle, o Rebulic - archoly - - History – all capture parts of past - Drama writers- Aeschylus(90 plays ), Sophocles (123 plays), Euripides – hundreds of other writers but only these 3 authors are given Who are these people? - Acheans , denanes, agons – lost their prominence. Old fashioned terms - Hellenes – let northern Greece and went to southern italy and become prominent. Hellas – the country. The name came from the people living in Italy - Greeks don’t think of themselves as a collective – never gave themselves a name o A multitude of city states. Being a part of a city have nothing to do with another city. Territories competing with each other – rarely operated as a collective o Giako – also made by people living in Italy. The Greeks didn’t describe themselves this way, the romans did o They gather themselves when people attacked from the outside - Mycenions – first Greek speaking people. Made up of 3 people 1) pelascians – moved in to Greece in prehistoric times. First of homospaians sapiens. Not Greek speaking. More genetic. Assimilated by 2 other populations. 3) Minoan – Arthur Evans – island of crete not far Greece or middle east – more civilized – he called them Minoans a. King minatos and minotaur– half man half bull eats human flesh . ancient inhabitants of crete. Lasted 2600-1400. Lasted 1200 years b. Centres not cities. Capital called knossos. Palaces scattered across. Redistribute economy - Locals send extra goods to palace they store it and give back. Palaces were open not closed off. The population weren’t fighting with each other. The artwork consisted of frescoes – paint when plaster if wet. Peaceful paintings. c. Thalassocracy – rule by the sea. Had strong navy. Ruled the sea d. Thalassa- Sea in Greek. Not a Greek word e. Poseidon: potei – dew. Dew Lord f. If greeks didn’t have a word for the sea, they had to borrow it. Poseidon was not originally god of the sea g. Writing system – capture words with symbols. Syllabary – use syllables to capture a word i. Linear A – all the island ii. Linear B – found on the mainland Greece: Mycenae, pylos, thebes, knossos iii. Michael ventris discovered linear B – early form of Greek h. Traded with Greeks had an impact with Greeks. Brought sociall, artwork, writing, working metal to the greeks i. Religion – goddesses – called chithonic. Chithon means earth i. Caves, mountains – statues of females and small statues of males ii. Emphasis on fertility nd iii. 2 type of religion - Olympian religions – patriotric male figure – in the sky hes removed – no immortality. 1 is chithonic. William jones – English judge – linguist – - Many languages diff populations shared words in common. Certain grammatical features and verbs. There must be a common ancestor. Indo-european – family of languages – refers to English, German, Italian, French, roman, Russian etc. if want to understand 2) Heladic branch of indo-Europeans – first population ride horses Pastoralisis – Greek speaking, omypian relgion, zeuz, Apollo,Poseidon, war(martial) Greeks mix 2 religions. 600 years later combine the 3 and we get mycenaens Lecture 2 Mycenaeans – 1 recognized greek population - 1600-1200 - Mycenae – largest city, most influential, - Pylos - city - Tiryns - city - Argos- city - Cities were connected politically, etc. ruled by own leaders, but cities were coordinated - Helladic branch of indo-europeans– closer to greeks, and influenced by Minoans (not greek) Map - Pellocranes – area of Mycenae Schliemann - Discovered city states – named them mycenaeans - Archaeological sources (schliemann found) and a textual source (linear B) Evidence - Archaeology - Pottery - Monuments - Weapons - Art Monuments - Known as cyclopean architecture – named because the stones are so heavy that they could only be moved by Cyclops - Cities held hundred of thousands vs millions – quite small Pottery - Know where a population has been - Can tell about the skill of these people - Show motifs - Can show mythology, war - Shows how far were they trading Shaft graves - Gold masks - Agamemnon Tholoi - Later greeks did not build these they couldn’t afford it - Like pyramids tombs - House the dead, ancient wealth Art - Early Greeks learned to work metal from Minoans - Artwork more violent - Mycena – thick walls – designed to keep people out - Minoans – lasted 1200 hundred years and didn’t have high walls - Minoans art – decorative art Linear B - Michael ventris (1953) worked with chadwick - Architect - John Chadwick - Ancient greek - Inventory/politics/religion etc. – not used always - Linear A – Minoans and used symbol system to write their own system linear B - Early form of greek Foreign contacts with Mycenaeans - Crete - Egypt - Hittites - Italy - Troy - Black sea – had food, lumbar, slaves - Travel around Mediterranean – big traders - Militant population Troy – most famous of contacts - Schliemann/blegan - Toy VI A – city of king prime. City homer talks about - 1800-1600 bce - Had access to black sea to get there needed to get to troy - Very powerful. Had a profitable business Homer - Ionia – born mordern day istanbul - 8 century bce 1750 bce – 500 years after Mycenaeans - Blind - Iliad - Odyssey - Oral poet (type of poetry - aoidos) - Not Mycenaean – - Had a preoccupation with Mycenaeans - Heros come from Mycenaean times – Trojan war or earlier - Trojan war so important to Mycenaeans Homers influence - Artwork - Citation by authors - Heart of education - Greek “bible” – greeks have no bible that they operate from, so this is the closest authority, not religiously. Foundation of education. All greeks listened to homer - Hellenistic liter - Alexander the great – 400 years after homer – always traveled with homers text. Macedonian. - Odessey iliad tell story of troy Epic cycle – these stories known as - Cypria - Iliad - Aethiopis - Little iliad - Persis iliou (destruction of troy) - Nostoi - Odessey - Epic – type of poetry. Poetry of war and things that are really important. Can tell by the verse. - Iliad and odessey part of the cycle Cypria - First part of epic cycle - Prometheus and zeus o Zeus – chief god. Came into being. he and his father went into battle. And his father battled his grandfather. Has to fight his way to the throne o Zeus didn’t think highly of human, Prometheus did. Prometheus – was punished by zeus o Prometheus can tell the future- - Thetis (sea godess) – destined to produce a child stronger than zeus - Peleus – non immortal marries thetis. - Eris (strife) – not invited to the wedding. Throws a golden apple and it lands at Hera, Aphrodite (goddess of sex), Athena’s feet it says: ‘for the fairest’ this started a fight o Eris wanted to create a fight in this occasion - Paris(son of priam) – mortal – Priam king of Troy o He chooses which goddess he gives apple to. The 3 bribe him hera – make him king. Aphrodite- sleep with the gorgeous woman . athena – wisdom. Choose Aphrodite, and now he is enemys with Athena and hera. Gorgeous woman is married - Helen daughter of tyndareus (mortal father ) and leda. Zeus was a swan – and impregnate leda o Tyndareus makes the men who wants to marry Helen swear an oath. So no one makes war against him or husband o Menelaus – marrys her. Agamemnon’s brother – king. o Helen and paris run off to troy and Menelaus signals alarm and all men go to troy to bring back helen - Paris’ theft Greek Institutions - Xenia (Zeus Xenios) – means hospitality. Different cities if a visitor comes you give him hospitality and food and establish contact. Paris violates this institution. Zeus constitutes this - Hiketeia (Zeus Hikesios) – capture people and give them comfortable circumstances, feed them and allow them to survive. Supplication. If someone surrenders you take them captive and ask for ransom from family. also governed by zeus. Treat captives nicely. - Horkia (Zeus Horkios) – swearing an oath. Swear by zeus. Will be held to promise. - Institutions deigned so world works in some order. And the olympians - How do you know you can trust the gods? Swears by the river STYX o If oath is broken lose power for 7 years - Greeks have admiration of people who can cheat the system Cypria - Warriors travel to Troy - Tells us its for 10years - Fight in front of Troy th Iliad – in 10 year, describes 3 busy days - Qurall of Achillies (menis) and ends with burial of hector - Achilles – son of thetis and pelesus. He is mortal because pelesus is his father not zeus. So he is going to die. Greeks don’t believe in after world. This life is all you have, and you just return to darkness. So you try to leave something behind - Agamemnon – greek in charge of expadition because he has the greatest number of ships and most kingly - Achillies – most impressive warrior. Creates tension with Agamemnon. - At 10 year tension arises. achilles has captured another town. And loot is distributed to soldiers that participated and by rank. Achilles receives Briseis as maidwoman - Agamemnon receives – Chryseis - Chryses (priest of Apollo) – father of chryseis. Asks for chryseis back and offers to pay. Agamemnon says no. Apollo causes a plague to greeks o Apollo god light, medicine/diease o Achilles calls a meeting on soldiers and decide they will return Chyrseis. But Agamemnon wants his reward, and they fight for Achilles reward, Briseis. Achilles says fine but im not fighting - Hector – leader of Trojans. Now is a good time to fight the battle because Achilles isn’t there. Hector is close to beating greeks. Hector also son of king troy. Greeks ask for Achilles back and he says no - Patroclus – good friend of Achilles. Gets in Achilles armour. Fights one on one with hector and dies. Achilles goes into war and raging. Hector and Achilles meet in battle. Hector dies. Their champion is gone. Achillies still isn’t satisfied – insultes his death drags his body around troy - Father of hector – prime – asks for ransom for hector. Gives hector back and gives 9 days to burry hector before doing into war. Think achillies is being childish – doesn’t go to war when he doesn’t get his way Homeric values - Typical greek hero will always come to an end. Everyone will die - Aristos – among the best. Can only get kleos if you are apart of the aristos - Kakos – among the worst. No one will talk about you and this is bad for greek - Kleos – can get glory for yours
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