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EARTH 333 (2)

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University of Waterloo
Earth Sciences
Martin Ross

1. Inorganic (physical) Structures 2. Organic (biogenic) structures 1. Primary (physical) structures: during or shortly after accumulation – syn-depositional 2. Secondary (physical/chemical) structures: Post depoitional (e.g. form after lithification) 1. Bedding structures -Laminations (<1cm) or horizontal bedding -Rhythmites -Bedforms -Current generated (lower flow regime): cross bedding, ripples -Current generated (upper flow regime) -Wave generate structures -Flaser and lenticular bedding -Graded bedding -Imbrication 2. Bedding Plane Structures -Bottom marks -Flutes or flute casts, scour marks -Tool marks -Surface marks -current generated -climate generated 3. Deformation structures -Load Structures: load casts, flame structures -Dish Structures: dewatering, convolute bedding 4. Biogenic structures 1. Chemical -Mineral Segregations -Solution structures (Stylolite) 2. Physical Flow Regime Bedform Preservation Identification Potention Lower Lower Plane bed High Flat laminae, lack of current Lower Ripple marks High Small, cm-scale Lower Sand Waves Medium-Low Rare, longer wavelength than ripples Lower Dunes High Large; meter scale Lower Upper Plane bed High Flat laminae, aligned grains Upper Antidunes Low Water in phase with bedform, low angle, subtle laminae Mostly erosional features Upper Pool and Chute Very low Rhythmites: layers of sediment which are laid down with obvious periodicity and regularity; annual processes or seasonal sediment variations. Lamination: Small scale sequence of fine layers (<1cm); cyclical changes in sediment supply Lenticular: Alternating mud and sand; during periods of slack water, mud suspended and Cross Bedding deposited when water velocity it at zero. Lenticular = Mud >> Sand Flaser = Sand >> Mud *High energy environment, intertidal and supratidal zones (indicates tidal rhythm) Flute Marks: tapering end points towards flow; steep end up current Tool marks Bed Plane: When flow velocities are sufficiently high (Fr>1), erosion overwhelms deposition and sediment is transported at bed planes Antidune: supercritical flow (Fr>1), sediments deposited on the upstream side, and eroded on the downstream side Flame Structure Dewatering Structure Convolute Bedding: liquefaction of sediments Most stable and durable clasts: Conglomerate Quartzite, Chert & Vein-quartz
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