ENGL 210F Textbook Summary [Full Course] File contains concise, easy-to-read summaries of assigned textbook readings. Readings arranged chronologically by when they were assigned for ease of use; organized by chapter for increased readability.

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Nadine Gingrich

Chapter 1Communicating A transactional and relational process involving the meaningful exchange of information Message Any type of oral written or nonverbal communication that is transmitted by a sender to an audience Sender The participant in the transaction who has an idea and communicates it by encoding it in a message Encoding The act of converting ideas into code in order to convey a written oral or nonverbal message Channel A communicationpathway or medium over which a message travels Receiver The person for whom a message is intended who decodes the message by extracting meaning from it Decoding The act of extracting meaning from spoken written and nonverbal communication Feedback the receivers response to a message that confirms if the original was received and understood Noise Any form of physical or psychological interference that distorts the meaning of a message Communication Barriers Problems that can affect the communication transaction leading to confusion or misunderstanding Barriers to effective communication o Channel Overload The inability of a channel to carry all transmitted messages o Information Overload A condition whereby a receiver cannot process all messages due to their increasing number o Emotional Interference A psychological factor that creates problems with the communication transaction o Semantic Interference o Physical and Technical Interference o Mixed Messages and Channel Barriers eg Claiming to agree with an idea and raising your eyebrows o Environmental Interference Differences in demographics attitudes and perceptions Nonverbal Communication Communication that does not use words but takes place through gestures eye contact and facial expressions Paralanguage Nonverbal vocal communication Body Language kinesics Nonverbal communication conveyed by gestures eye contact posture and facial expression o Gestures and Posture o Eye Contact The act of looking another person directly in the eye o Facial Expressions Proxemics The study of the use of space o Intimate Distance 018 inches o Personal Distance 18 inches4 feet o Social Distance 410 feet o Public Distance Beyond 10 feet Internal Communication Communication through the channels of an organization External Communication Communication with audiences who are part of an external environment and not part of a writers organization The general functions of business communication are to o Inform o Persuade o Promote Goodwill Active Listening Listening that demands close attention to the literal and emotional meaning of a message and a level of responsiveness that shows the speaker the message was both heard and understood Formal Communications Network A system of communication sanctioned by organizational management Informal Oral Network Unofficial internal communication pathways that carry gossip and rumours sometimes accurate sometimes not also known as the grapevine Formal Communication Channels Facilitate the flow of information through an organizations hierarchy Upward Communication Flow Channels information from subordinates to superiors
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