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Geography and Environmental Management
GEOG 101
Khan Rahman

Geography Exam #1 Chapter 1 Classical Geography (after 1000 BCE)  began to cover more than short, local areas  Greeks were first to establish colonies and create civilization  Greeks initiated 2 geographic traditions, literary and mathematical  Literary Contributors:  Hipparchus came up with the grid system (latitude aka parallels and longitude aka meridians)- mathematical  he was responsible for mapping the curved surface of the Earth on a flat surface  Herodotus was an established historian and geographer (made it clear that geography was a necessary background to history)  Aristotle was responsible for making relationships between latitude, climate and population density  Eratosthenes (considered father of geography) mapped the Mediterranean region and adjacent areas in Europe, Africa and Asia  Mathematical Contributors:  Thales took a scientific view of the world and predicted an eclipse of the sun  By the 5th century Greeks predicted the Earth to be a sphere and Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth  Ptolemy produced the first index of places of the world (included coordinates for 8000 locations)  classical geography was concerned with locations and interconnections of places  cosmography- universe, heaven and earth  chorography- refers to places smaller than the world (countries)  topography- local areas within countries Physical and Human Geography  physical geography- geographers saw physical geography as paramount (environmental determinist school)  human geography- relevant subject matter (landscape school) Contemporary Landscape Geography  involves the study of human ways of life, cultural regions and related landscapes and relationships between humans and landscapes  today landscape geography is concerned with visible features (fields, fences and buildings) and symbolic features (meaning and values)  landscape geography affects cultural, social, political and economic processes Regional Geography  today regional geography emphasizes the understanding and description of a particular region and what it means for different people to live there  3 concerns: 1) concern with regions as settings or locales for human activity 2) uneven economic and social development between regions 3) concern with the ways in which regions reflect the characteristics of the occupying society Spatial Analysis  the main concern was that the theoretical constructs it uses to explain locations are somewhat limited (it showed generalizations instead of specifics)  spatial analysts typically are economic (ex. location of industrial plants)  some geographers believed spatial analysis is overly concerned with spatial issues (to the point where spatial issues ignore human variables as causes of landscapes) Global Issues  today global issues are concerned with global movements of people, products, ideas and capital  interested in how the many and diverse people and places scattered throughout the world and increasingly associated with one another  human impacts on earthy, population growth, spread of diseases, refugee problems, food shortages, vanishing languages, spread of democracy and urban growth are all major issues Applied Geography  geographic skills are used to solve problems  geography as exploration is a prime example of such applied geography  focuses on social and environmental issues such as peace, energy supple and use, food availability, population control and social inequalities Technical Advances  human geography today is greatly aided by technology  examples include aerial photography and both infrared and satellite imagery  advances in computer technology and geographic information systems have facilitated mapping and data analysis as well Chapter 2 Philosophical Options  determinism- all events, including human actions, are predetermined while free will- is when humans act according to their will  Empiricism  Empiricism- belief that all knowledge results from experience (fundamental assumption of positivism)  gives priority to factual observations over theoretical statements  Positivism  Positivism- geography needs to be objective (personal beliefs shouldn't influence research activity)  theory- set of statements or assumptions  hypothesis- derived from the theory  law- when hypothesis becomes verified  positivists focus on spatial analysis  Humanism  humanism- more loosely structured set of ideas  belief centered on aspects of human life as value, quality, meaning and spirituality  focuses on how individuals perceive their world and emphasizes subjectivity  humanists focus on humans and land, landscapes and regions  pragmatism- human actions structured around our subjective i
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