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GEOG101 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Demographic Transition, Sub-Saharan Africa, One-Child Policy

Geography and Environmental Management
Course Code
Brent Doberstein
Study Guide

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Possible Quiz Questions
Chapter 3
Describe each stage of the demographic transition model and explain what happens to birth and death
rates as a country develops. What factors might slow or speed up the process?
Stage 1: High birth and death rates
- a lot of children are born, but high birth rate is offset by a lot of deaths
- war, famine, disease and generally poor healthcare keeps death rates high
- population tends to stay the same size because births and deaths cancel each other out
- E.g. Zambia
Stage 2: Lower death rates and high birth rates
- death rates decline due to two factors:
1. increased harvests - reduce death and illnesses related to malnutrition/famine
2. improved sanitary conditions reduce disease-related deaths
- birth rates increased slightly due to factory jobs, marrying and starting family at younger age
- total population grows
- E.g. Sub-Saharan Africa, Laos
Stage 3: lower birth rates and death rates
- children become less important
- birth rates are still higher than death rates
- overall population growth slows and levels off
- E.g. Turkey, Argentina
Stage 4: stability between rates
- both birth and death rates have leveled off
- birth rates almost always remain higher than death rates
- population continues to grow at steady pace
- E.g. US, much of Europe, few countries in Asia (Japan)
Stage 5: birth rates lower than death rates
- outr’s populatio epeted to delie oer tie
Population Profile/pyramid
- shows number/percentage of a population that is a particular age (or age range)
- divide males and females so numbers can be compared for any given age range
- types:
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Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

1. Country experienced high population growth but growth is slowing, triangle begins to look
like a bell (e.g. India and Tanzania)
2. Countries that are growing rapidly look like triangles with concave side (e.g. Niger, Nigeria
and Benin)
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