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Midterm

HIST113 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Protestantism, Sirius, United States


Department
History
Course Code
HIST113
Professor
Catherine Briggs
Study Guide
Midterm

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HIST 113
October 18th 2014
Midterm Exam Notes
Lecture Summary Notes
Lecture 1: Themes in Business History
Fishing: The First Business
The “discovery” of North America by the Europeans (1492)
Leads to expansion, exploration, and trade
Factors Leading to European Exploration
1. Growing power of kings
Tried to take over as much of the world as they could
2. Changes in business and trade activities
Engaging in trade with different parts of the world, more products
3. Technological advances
Ex. 3 masses instead of 1 on ships
Greater knowledge of scientific concepts like latitude and longitude
4. Commercial Revolution
Society is motivated to accumulate wealth
Discovery of Fisheries in North America
John Cabot was given credit for discovering the vast fishing stalks off the
coast of Canada
Bristol fisherman may have already known about the fish, and were
already fishing here
Primary fish found is cod
oHigh in protein, high in fat: a dense form of calories
oThis makes it more valuable
Fish was an important resource in European society
There were no licensing fees because no one owned the water/land
Growth of Fishing
Within a couple of decades, many fishing fleets came from Europe to Canada
o1517 – 100 vessels off the coast of Newfoundland
oLate 1500’s over 400 ships
Free enterprise
oNo regulations in place
oOpen to anyone who wants to participate
oMajor merchants who invested wanted to keep it this way
The first ship captain to arrive would become in charge and make decisions
regarding conflict

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Merchants: traders interested in moving products to different parts of the world
for a profit
oInvest because they get a percentage of the catch
Risks
Merchants and investors
Spread investments over several fishing ships
If the ship doesn’t come back with fish, they will lose money
Fishermen
Weather: can be nasty storms while crossing the Atlantic Ocean
They try to leave as early (in spring) and stay as long as possible (into late fall)
Pirates (robbers): steal the catch, sink the ship, and kill the fishermen
War: Between Britain, France, and Spain. A ship carrying trade goods could be
attacked by the different governments
oThe British would board ships to take the sailors (need skilled seamen to
join the British navy)
Wet Fishery
Found in the earlier years
Much smaller fishing crews
Did all the processing of the fish on board the ship
Did not dry the fish
Put fish in the bottom of the boat once skinned and de-boned and threw salt on
them
Dry Fishery
Becomes the dominant method
Dry and salt the fish (less salt)
Go out everyday in smaller fishing boats, bring back fish and process it on the
land
Advantages:
oMakes a better product (less salt)
oAllows the individual fishing crew to acquire more product (not bound by
the size of their ship)
Fishing and Settlement
Settlement and colonization is not necessary for fishing trade
Exploration continues for other wealth

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Lecture 2: The Fur Trade 1600-1760
The Importance of the Fur Trade
Takes place over long period of time
Begins on small scale, becomes a major business activity
Dominant form of economic health and well being
Operated through much of North/West areas of Canada
oConducted over 1000s of km of Canada
Shaped Canada because it was interconnected with the wars and military alliances
The Beginning
Initial fur trade including fishermen who came in contact with Canadas
aboriginal people’s in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
More and more Europeans began to come to harvest the furs
A mutual activity with mutual benefit
The Europeans
Furs are used in European clothing
oTraditionally (early 1500s) furs used to adorn the clothes of the elite
(kings, nobility, etc.)
oClothing reflected status
Beaver furs became the primary means of making hats (which are worn
extensively in European culture)
oGentlemen wore hats to show respect (ex. Church)
oProfessionals wore hats to denote their occupation
The Native Peoples
Initiated the trade
Already were in the practice of engaging in economic trade amongst themselves
Had a bit of experience trading with people from other parts of the world
Realize that Europeans have useful products that they cant make or access
themselves
oGlass beads for ceremonies
oGun, gun powder, alcohol
Settlement
French and British create permanent settlements in North America
oBut the fur trade did not require settlement
Initially they traded on the mouth of the St. Laurence river
oWas an annual trade
Some groups would act as middlemen for the people who live farther west (get a
cut of the profit)
European Kings put pressure on explorers to claim the land
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