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Final Exam Review – Lecture Notes.docx

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Marlene Epp
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Final Exam Review – 2nd half of Term – Lecture Notes
Resistance movements as Peace movements
Non-resistance x Active resistance
- A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual
groups within the civilian population, dedicated to fighting an
invader in an occupied country or the dictatorship of a nation
through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence.
- To be defined as a peace movement, must it be
Danish resistance:
-1940, German occupation begins; initial policy of
-Germany wants to exploit the industry and agriculture of
Denmark for the war effort; control key rail lines and sea
ports; also eliminate the Jewish population
-1943, German occupation becomes repressive; resistance
begins resistance led by Freedom Council
-tactics include: bureaucratic procrastination; community
singing; celebration of Danish culture; leaf-letting; work
stoppages and slowdowns; protection of Jews; sabotage of
arms manufacturers and rail lines; nonviolent ‘People’s
-Strategy was ‘deny, delay, diminish’
-Success? undermined Hitlers ability to utilize Danish
-Reduced numbers of Jews killed
Ten Commandments for Danes:
Written by 17 year-old in reaction to German invasion and
circulated in Denmark
1You must not go to work in Germany and Norway.
2You shall do a bad job for the Germans.
3You shall work slowly for the Germans.

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4You shall destroy important machines and tools.
5You shall destroy everything that may be of benefit to the
6You shall delay all transport.
7You shall boycott German and Italian films and papers.
8You must not shop at Nazis stores.
9You shall treat traitors for what they are worth.
10 You shall protect anyone chased by the Germans
White Rose
-used nonviolent methods to undermine the Nazi regime
-led by Sophie Scholl, her brother Hans and others
-main tactic was printing and distributing anti-Nazi flyers
-Rosenstrasse protest
-February 27, 1943, Berlin: attempt to round up remaining
-non-Jewish German women married to Jews protest the
imprisonment of their husbands
-men were held at a Jewish community building on
Rosenstrasse (Rose Street)
-up to 1000 women gather to sing songs, chant for the
release of their husbands
Dutch resistance:
-people wore orange carnations as symbols of Dutch royalty
-university students refused to sign oaths of loyalty to
German occupation forces
-2-day general strike held in Amsterdam February, 25 1941,
in reaction to repression of Jews: shut down the city;
300,000 participants
-Estimated that 50-60,000 people involved in underground
Norwegian resistance:
-unlike in Denmark, Norway’s government collaborated with

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Nazis; fascist president Quisling first attempted to
gain control of schools and teachers’ union
-up to 10,000 of the country’s 12,000 teachers wrote letters
of resistance to Quisling, refusing to promote fascist
education and refusing to join the new compulsory union;
signed their names
-university of Oslo students begin wearing paper clips in
1940 as a sign of solidarity (binding together)
Madres de la Plaza de Mayo – Mothers of the Disappeared
- White Scarf
Singing Revolution (Estonia)
Velvet Revolution (Czechoslovakia)
Saffron Revolution (Burma)
Umbrella Revolution (Hong Kong)
Anti-Nuclear Movement
Ivy “Mike”: first H-bomb test, Nov. 1, 1952
The Anti-Nuclear Peace / Disarmament Movement
Post-World War II until …
Directed towards the elimination of a kind of weaponry
Not all anti-nuclear activists are pacifists or advocates of
Some activists concerned only with the policy of their own
a global, mass movement
not fringe; a movement of the status quo
emergence of best known peace symbol of 20th c
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