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Health 102 notes for readings- Testable.docx

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University of Waterloo
HLTH 102
Mathieu Doucet

Health 102 How tobacco smoke causes diseases  The first Surgeon General’s report on the effects of smoking was released in 1964.  Tobacco use is the single largest preventable cause for death and diseases for both men and women.  Large proportions of deaths are caused by smoking- related diseases such as heart attacks, chronic lung diseases and cancer.  Even non-smokers die from heart disease and lung cancer and children suffer from respiratory infections because of second hand smoking.  CDC: Centre for Disease Control and Prevention; FDA: Food and DrugAdministration  World Health’s MPOWER  Monitor the tobacco epidemic and prevention policies  Protecting people from second hand smoke where they live, work and play.  Offering quit assistance to current smokers  Warning about the dangers of tobacco  Enforcing comprehensive restrictions on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.  Raising prizes and taxes on tobacco products.  There is no safe level of exposure to cigarette smoke. They get exposed to 7000 chemicals, 100s of these are hazardous and 69 of them are known to cause cancer.  Only proven strategies to reduce the risk of tobacco –caused diseases are preventing initiation, facilitating cessation, and eliminating exposure to second-hand smoke.  Cigarette smoke and components within the smoke stimulate release or activities of factors that favor the development of thrombosis.  Active smoking and involuntary smoking can injure endothelial cells.  Combustion compounds in tobacco smoke cause DNAdamage, inflammation and oxidative stress.  Changing cigarette designs including filtered, low-tar, and “light” variations has not reduced overall disease risk and has hindered prevention and cessation efforts.  The designed characteristics of cigarettes, such as ventilation features, filters and paper porosity, have a significant influence on the levels of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in the inhaled smoke.  Nicotine is the drug in tobacco that causes addiction.  There are multiple nicotinic receptors in the brain.  Variations in genes such as CYP2A6 contribute to the differing patterns of smoking behavior and smoking cessation.  Components of cigarette smoke individually and in combination bring about genetic and epigenetic process that lead to cancer causation as well as critic cellular pathway that further growth and development of transformed cells.  Cigarette smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, 1, 3-butadiene, benzene, aldehydes, and ethylene oxide and have carcinogenic potency and levels in cigarette smoke.  Cytochrome P-450 enzymes activate the carcinogens in the cigarette smoke which has a direct effect on the formation of DNAadducts.  Cigarette smoking and involuntary exposure t
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