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Human Resources Management
HRM 200
Katrina Di Gravio

Workplace Trends: Work/life conflict. Increase in stress related illnesses/stressors. Workplace environment (loyalty, change, toxic ppl, unrealistic demands, lack of control, lack of career satisfaction). Increase workplace conflict (gossip, violence, toxic). New generation of workers.Technology.Government policies.Leadership. Current HR Challenges: 1. Search for Talent: Knowledge/Commitment VS Skills/Abilities 2. Policy Overload: When is enough? Trying to change undesirable behaviours by creating policies. Easy to hide behind policies. 3. Leadership Development 4. Stress 5. Understanding your workforce 6. Are staff #1? Successful Business have: Strong Culture + Positive Attitude + Partnerships within HR need to be: reliable, responsive, understanding, knowledgeable, innovative, have economic value, have integrity, tangible CHAPTER 1: THE STRATEGIC ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANANGEMENT - Human Resources Management (HRM) = managing ppl in organizations to produce workforce competencies and behaviours required to achieve the operation's strategic goals managing human capital: knowledge, education, training, skills, expertise -HRM responsibilities: OPERATIONAL Including services: talent management, analyzing jobs, planning future workforce requirements, selecting employees, orienting and developing employees, managing compensation and reward plans, comunicating with employees (including health, safety, counseling and disciplining) -HRM responsibilities: STRATEGIC Strategy - company's plan for how it will balance its internal strengths and weaknesses w/ external opportunities and threats to maintain a competitive advantage increasingly, HR department is being viewed as an equal partner in strategic planning process HR specialists are expected to be change agents -Measuring HR value: Metrics Use of various metrics, or statistics to measure results of HR is quite common Balanced Scorecard = a measurement system that translates organization's strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures -External environmental influences: Economic conditions. Labour market issues.Government. Technology.Globalization. Economic Conditions: Employment levels. Productivity levels.Growth of service sector. Workforce Issues: Canada's workforce is among the most diverse in the world. Increasing workforce diversity visible & ethnic minorities, women, aboriginal population, persons with disabilities Generational differences - traditionalists, baby boomers, sandwich generation, generation X, generation Y Demographic issues.Education. Non standard/contingent workers = workers who not have regular full- time employment status Technology: Twitter to Facebook to videoconferencing, a wide range of tech is available to organizations today. Q's are raised concerning data control, accuracy, right to privacy, and ethnics Firms are monitoring employee email, voice mail, telephone conversations, computer usage, and behaviour (using video surveillance) Government: Ensure policies &practices comply w/ new and changing laws covering: human rights, employment standards, labour relations, occupational health and safety, workers' compensation Globalization: Firms extend business operations abroad. Emergence of 1 world economy Increased international competition Multinational corporations: conduct business around the world, seek cheap skilled labour HR professionals must become familiar w/ employment legislation in other countries & manage ethical dilemmas when labour standards are lower than those in Canada Environmental Concerns: Sustainability. Climate change.Global warming.Pollution & carbon footprint.Extinction of wildlife species.Ecosystem fragility. Other related issues are increasingly important to ppl around the world. -Internal environmental influences: Organizational Culture: core values, beliefs and assumptions that are widely shared by members of an organization often conveyed through an organization's mission statement Organizational Climate: prevailing atmosphere that exists & impacts employees friendly/unfriendly, open/secretive, rigid/flexible, innovative/stagnant influenced by leadership, HR policies, organizational communication Empowerment: providing workers w/ skills & authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers -Brief history of HRM: Scientific Management: process of scientifically analyzing manufacturing processess to reduce costs & compensating employees based on their performance levels Human Relations Movement: belief that the attitudes & feelings of workers are important & deserve more attention (concern for ppl) Human Resources Movement: focus on concern for ppl and productivity -Growing professionalism in HRM: common body of knowledge, certification of members (CHRP), self-regulation, code of ethics, social responsibility CHAPTER 2: THE CHANGING LEGAL EMPHASIS: FROM COMPLIANCE TO VALUING DIVERSITY -Legal framework for employment law in Canada: Constitutional Law: Charter of Rights & Freedoms Legislated Acts of Parliament: Income Tax Act Regulations (for legislated Acts): rules to aid interpretation of laws Common Law: judicial precedents Contract Law: collective agreements/employment contracts -Multiple legal jurisdictions for employment/labour law: provincial/territorial employment laws govern 90% of Canadian workers federal laws govern 10% of workers in federal civil service, Crown corporations & agencies, transportation, banking & communications -Employment/labour standards legislation: Establish minimum employee entitlements pertaining to: Wages, paid holidays & vacation. Maternity, parenting & adoption leaves. Bereavement & compassionate care leave. Termination notice & overtime pay. Set limit on maximum # work hours permited per day or week Principle of equal pay for equal work -Legislation protecting human rights: Charter of Rights & Freedoms (1982): guarantees fundamental freedoms to all Canadians Section 15 guarantees the right to equal protection & equal benefit of the law w/o discrimination (in particular w/o discrimination based on race, national/ethnic origin, colous, religion, sex, age/mental/physical disability) -Discrimination = distinction, exclusion/preference based on a prohibited ground which nullifies/impairs a person's rights to full & equal recognition & exercise of human rights & freedoms -Types of Discrimination Prohibited: Intentional Unintentional (Constructive/systemic) direct Apparently neutral policies have adverse impact differential/unequal treatment on protected groups indirectly based on association -Requirement for reasonable accommodation: Adjustment of employment policies/practices so that no individual is denied benefits, disadvantaged in employment, prevented from carrying out a job. Based on prohibited grounds in human rights legislation Eg.work station redesign for wheelchair -Undue Hardship: Human rights legislation mandates employers, must accommodate to point of "undue hardship" The point where financial cost/health & safety risks make accommodation impossible -Permissible Discrimination: Bona Fide Occupational Requirement: justifiable reason for discrimination (BFOR) based on business necessity for safe & efficient operations intrinsically required by job tasks (eg. must have sight to drive a truck) -Harassment = unwelcome behaviour that demeans, humiliates, or embarrasses a person & that a reasonable person should have known would be unwelcome Sexual Harassment = offensive/humiliating behaviour that is related to a person's sex, and behaviour of a sexual nature that created an intimidating, unwelcome, hostile, or offensive work environment or that could reasonably be hought to put sexual conditions on a person's job/employment opportunities. 1/ Sexual Coercion = harassment of a sexual nature that results in some direct consequence to the worker's employment status/some gain in or loss of tangible job benefits 2/ Sexual Annoyance = sexually related conduct that is hostile, intimidating, or offensive to the employee but has no direct link to tangible job benefits/loss thereof -Harassment Policies: to reduce liability, employers should establish sound harassment policies, communicate such policies to all employees, enforce policies in a fair & consistent manner, take an active role in maintaining a working environment that is free of harassment have a clear workplace anti-harassment policy statement info for victims employees' rights & responsibilities employees' & managers' responsibilities have clear workplace anti-harassment policy procedures penalties for retaliation against a complainant guidelines for appeals other options such as union grievance procedures & human rights complaints how the policy will be monitored & adjusted -Employment Equity (E.E): Federal Employment Equity Act, based on Charter of Rights proclaimed in 1987 and amended in 1995. protect women, visible minorities, persons w/ disabilities, Aboriginal ppl removes employment barriers & promotes equality E.E Designated Groups: Women, Visible Minorities, People w/ Disabilities, Aboriginals Plight of 4 designated groups: lower pay, occupational segregation, glass ceiling, underutilization, higher rates of unemployment, underemployment, low status jobs w/ little career growth potential E.E program implementation steps: 1/ Senior management commitment & support 2/ Data collection & analysis 3/ Employment systems review 4/ Plan development 5/ Implementation 6/ Monitoring, evaluation, revising -Diversity Management: broader/more inclusive than E.E a set of activities designed to: integrate all employees in multicultural workforce & use diversity to enhance organization's effectiveness -Waterloo's Inclusivity: Waterloo employees - The principles of inclusivity  acknowledge individuals have uniques& particular needs in the learning & work env.  respect each individual's right to express & present themselves relative to their religion, culture, ethnic background, sexual orientation, gender-identity, physical & mental ability  promote inclusivity by reasonable adjusting procedures, activities & physical env.  focus on the capability of the individual w/o assumptions/labels  inclusive in all communication forms  serve all w/ sensitivity, respect & fairness  ONE WATERLOO Campaign: envisions a campus in which our differences are not just identified, but celebrated. The campaign nurtures a community where students feel comfortable & safe to learn, explore & critically think abt issues of race, religion, sexuality, gender, age & ability. The campaign creates a space for students to feel safe in their expression of these ideas, & be open to dialogue & mutual learning. -Creating an Inclusive env:  top managemen commitment  integration of diversity initiatives & talent management  diversity training programs  support groups  critical relationship networks  open dialogue  management responsibility & accountability -Ethical Dilemma: Your company president tells you not to hire any gay/lesbian employees to work as part of his office staffe b/c it would make him uncomfortable. What would you do? CHAPTER 3: HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY -Strategic importance of tech in HRM:  HR tech is any tech that is used to attract, hire, retain & maintain talent, support workforce administration, & optimize workforce management  can be used in different human resource info sys types, used by various stakeholders & accessed in different ways  A strong strategic relationship btw HR & tech => enable HR to achieve 3 key objectives: strategic alignment w/ business objectives; business intelligence - provideing users w/ relevant data; effectiveness& efficiency - changing how HR work is performed by reducing lead times, costs, & service levels -Tech impact on HR role: Traditional HR role has changed in 3 major ways as a result of the technologically enabled env.:  deceased transactional activities  increased client/customer focus  increased delivery of strategic services -Human Resources Info Sys (HRIS) = integrated sys used to gather, store, & analyze info regarding an organization's human resoursce -HRIS major components:  HR administration  recruitment & applicant tracking  time & attendance  training & development/knowledge management  pension administration  employment equity  performance evaluation  compensation & benefits administration  organization management  health & safety  labour relations  payroll interface -HRIS key functions:  create & maintain employee records  legal compliance  forecasting & planning HR requirements  talent/knowledge management  strategic alignment  enhancing decision making -Selecting & Implementing an HRIS:  Phase 1: Adoption - Determining the need need analysis based on company background, management/technical/HR/cost considerations  Phase 2: Implementation privacy& security considerations  Phase 3: Integration train users on sys organization's goal is for stakeholders to use the sys & reap benefits from sys identified through needs analysis as w/ any change, ppl need to become comfortable -Electronic HR (e-HR) = tech that enables HR professionals to integrate an organization's HR strategies, processes, & human capital to improve overall HR service deliver use of intranet network interconnected w/ 1 organization, using web tech for sharing of info internally e-HR& Web-based self-service trends:  Employee Self-Service (ESS) - enables employees to access & manage their personal info directly  Interactive Voice Response (IVR) - telephone tech in which a touch-tone telephone is used to interact w/ a database to acquire info from or enter data into the database Employee Self-Service Management Self-Service (ESS) (MSS) - enable employees to access & manage personal -enable managers to access a range of info abt info directly themselves &abt employees who report to them & -portals (single site access within an internet site) to process HR-related paperwork that pertains to used to faciliate ESS their staff -reduces HR operational costs -basic administrative/transactional HR activities shifted to employees -HR Tech Evolution: 1/ paper-based sys 2/ early personal computer tech 3/ electronic database sys 4/ web-based tech -HR Tech Strategy = a plan that is aimed at increasing effectiveness of HR programs, processes, & service delivery by shortening cycle times, increasing customer service levels. reducing costs, & adding new service capabilitie -Trends in HR & Tech: Watson Wyatt consultants  increased use of portals & intranets & a greater focus on virtual tech use  greater access to tech  continued optimization of current sys  enhanced focus on workforce analytics  increased focus on reducing costs  increased use of standards for data exchange & processes  contingency planning  heightened awareness of HR data privacy  enhance focus on workforce analytics  continued use of outsourcing of non-core HR related work -Ethical Dilemma: As HR administrator, you have access to confidential info. You are aware of the bonus staff will be receiving based on their performance appraisals. A senior manager, who is a friend of your parents, asks you if you could tell him how much his bonus will be. You are aware he has financial trouble & may need to take out a loan today if the bonus is insufficient. What do you do? CHAPTER 4: DESIGNING & ANALYZING JOBS -Organizing work for strategic success -Job design process of systematically organizing work into tasks required to perform a job -Job group of related activities/duties for 1 or more employees -Position collection of tasks/responsibilities performed by 1 person -Job specialization work simplification, industrial engineering -Behavioural aspects job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment, team based job design -Ergonomic aspects physical needs of workers -Increasing job flexibility cognitively complex, more team-based, more dependent on social skills & technological competence, time pressured, mobile, & less dependent on geography -Job analysis procedure for determining tasks, duties & responsibilities of each job & human attributes (knowledge, skills, abilities) required to perform it -Job Analysis Steps: 1/ Identify what info will be used for 2/ Review relevant background info 3/ Select representative positions/jobs to be analyzed 4/ Analyze jobs 5/ Review analysis w/ incumbent/supervisor 6/ Develop job description/specification -Collecting job analysis info methods - QUALITATIVE interview (individual, group, supervisory); questionnaires; observation; participant diary/log -Collecting job analysis info methods - QUANTITATIVE  positive analysis questionnaire: questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning duties & responsibilities of various jobs very structured job analysis questionnaire which contains 194 items provides quantitative job score on 6 dimensions of job requirements: info input, mental processes, work output (physical activities & tools), relationships w/ others, job context (physical & social env), other job characteristics (pace & structure) -Functional job analysis = quantitative method for classifying jobs based on types & amounts of responsibility for data, ppl and things performance standards & training requirements are also identified -National Occupational Classification (NOC): reference tool for writing job descriptions & job specifications compiled by federal government (HRSDC) contains comprehensive, standardized descriptions of abt 30,000 occupations & requirements for each NOC & its counselling component, The Career Handbook, both focus on occupations rather than jobs an occupation is a collection of jobs that share some or all of a set of main duties -Job description: a list of accountabilities, responsibilities, reporting relationships, & working conditions of a job - 1 product of a job analysis Job Description Info: job identification, job summary, relationships, accountabilities & responsibilities, authority, performace standards/indicators, working conditions & physical env. -Job Descriptions & Human Rights Legislation:  job descriptions are not legally required but are highly advisable  essential job duties should be clearly identified in the job description  only criteria examined should be knowledge, skills, abilities required for essential duties of job  when an employee cannot perform 1/more of essential duties b/c of reasons related to a prohibited ground, such as a physical disabilitiy/religion, reasonable accommodation to point of undue hardship is required -Job specification: a list of human requirements, that is, requisite knowledge, skills, abilities, needed to perform the job - another product of a job analysis  writing job specification invovles examining duties & responsibilities & answering q's "What human traits & experience are required to do this job?"  complying w/ human rights legislation means keeping a few pointers in mind: -all listed qualifications are bona fide occupational requirements (BFORs), based on current job duties & responsibilities -unjustifiably high educational and/or lengthy experience requirements can lead to systemic discrimination -qualifications of current incumbent should not be confused w/ min requirements, since he/she might be under qualified/overqualified -Entry-level jobs: identifying actual physical & mental demands is critical -Competency Based Job Analysis:  Competencies: demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of the job  Competency-Based job analysis: describing a job in terms of measurable, observable, behavioural competencies, an employee must exhibit to do a job well  3 reasons to describe jobs in terms of competencies rather than duties: 1/ Traditional job descriptio
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