1. What is Orientation?
A procedure for providing new employees with basic background
information about the firm/company and the job and specific
information they need to perform their jobs satisfactorily.
It helps in the socialization process to instill the attitudes, standards,
values, and patterns of behavior that are expected by the organization
Helps prevent reality shock which creates discrepancy between what
new employee expects from his/her new job and realities of it
2. What is the purpose of Orientation?
To improve job performance so that you know what your
expectations are, how you are going to perform, and the culture of
To reduce first day jitters and reality shock so that people get used to
To set a foundation for ongoing performance management and work-
Improve retention levels and reduce recruitment costs – balance
supply and demand
3. What are the problems with Orientation?
Too much information in a short time leading to an overwhelmed
Too many forms to fill out
Little or no orientation provided – don’t know protocols, not doing a
good job orienting
HR information too broad; supervisory information too detailed – you
want to know specifically what is in it for you and what you get out of
4. How can you evaluate Orientation
Employee Reaction – do they understand? Interview new employees
for their opinion on usefulness of the program
Socialization Effects – how they fit in. Review new employees at
regular intervals to assess progress toward understanding and
acceptance of beliefs, values, norms
Cost-benefit analysis – what is the cost of orientation in terms of the
money invested in them, benefits of orientation in terms of reduction
in errors, rate of productivity 5. What are the 6 steps in creating a training program?
1. Training Needs Analysis
2. Instructional Design
5. Evaluation of Training
6. How do we know if training is effective?
Training effectiveness can be enhanced by identifying the learning
styles of auditory, visual and kinesthetic and personalizing the training
Training should be easy to understand and trainees need to remember
material that is meaningful.
Easy to transfer new skills and behavior from training site to job site
by maximizing similarity between training and job situations
Motivate the trainee - conscientiousness
7. What are the 4 levels of evaluation?
Reaction – “How did you like the training” – see if responses are
Learning – Did they take something away from it and learn what they
were supposed to learn – mini assessments
Behavior –if you sent someone to training because they had anger
management, poor listening, did they apply what they have learned
Results – has there been a result of this training. ROI ($), better morale,
some measure is there of the results
8. Whose responsibility is employee development?
It is your own responsibility to keep your job. Employee development
is the process where the employee becomes aware of personal career-
related attributes and the lifelong series of activities that contribute to
his or her career fulfillment
9. What factors can affect Career Choices?
Identify Career stage – age
Identify Occupation Orientation – Hollen code
i. Realistic, Investigative, Social, Conventional, Enterprising,
Career anchors – concern you will not give up for the sake of job
i. Technical/functional, managerial competence, creativity,
autonomy and independence, security, service dedication, pure
challenge, lifestyle 10.What is management development?
Any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting
knowledge, changing attitudes or increasing skills. It helps to achieve
The management-development process consists of:
i. assessing HR needs to achieve strategic objectives HRP
ii. creating a talent pool
iii. developing managers
What do we need in our managers (KSA), when do we need them to
step in their roles (how many years do we have) how are we going to
get these skills (outsource them or bring people in)
11. Name 3 techniques to develop managers?
Developmental Job Rotation – 6-8 months in a role
Coaching/Understudy Approach – job shadow or mentor them to give
perspective about the job
Action Learning – releasing people from their regular work to achieve
Case study– group of people get together to work in the case, how
they work together
Management games - create hypothetical scenario and layout how
they will resolve it
College/university related programs
In-house development centers – help with specific skills, how to
challenge and change individuals, re-establish values, belief in
blending in role will improve themselves and organization
Conferences of professional associations – cross business team
approach with broader spectrum
12.Name 4 of the 8 performance management methods? (describe)
Graphic Rating Scale – scale that lists a number of traits and a range of
performance for each. The employee is then rated by identifying the
score that best describes his or her level of performance for each trait.
Not very detailed and not popular because it does not give information
Alternation ranking method – rank employees from best to worst on a
particular trait and only knows who the best and worst employee is.
Does not help people in between improve, not specific, not popular Paired comparison method – rank employees by making a chart of all
possible pairs of employees for each trait and indicating the better
employee of the pair. Does not give enough detail about the
performance and not told what to improve on.
Forced distribution method - predetermined percentages of ratees are
placed in various performance categories. There will always be people
in the bottom percentage and not given any feedback or enough
information about what they were evaluated on
Critical incident method - keeping a record of uncommonly good or
undesirable examples of an employee’s work-related behavior and
reviewing it with the employee at predetermined times. Gives
explanations on how to improve and is used with another method
(narrative performance for better explanation). Halo/pitchfork creates
Narrative forms – extension of critical incident , has more details and
examples, suggested for identifying specific issues and presenting a
performance improvement plan.
BARS - appraisal method that aims to combine the benefits of
narratives, critical incidents, and quantified ratings by anchoring a
quantified scale with specific narrative examples of good and poor
performance – high quality results
i. Generate critical incidents
ii. Develop performance dimensions
iii. Reallocate incidents
iv. Scale the incidents
v. Develop the final instrument
MBO – managed against the objectives of organization’s goals, set and
discuss department goals, individual goals (Expected results),
performance reviews, feedback
Computerized/web-based - enables managers to keep computerized
notes on employees, combine these with ratings on several
performance traits, and then generate written text to support each part
of the appraisal
13.What are two problems with Performance Appraisal?
Validity and Reliability
Rating scale problems
14.Name and describe 3 of the 6 rating scale problems?
Unclear performance standards – unfair appraisals because traits and
degrees of merit are open to interpretation.
Halo effect – rating of an employee on one trait biases the way that the
person is rated on other traits (reliability). This is especially true with
employees who are specially friendly toward the supervisor Central tendency – if the rating scale ranges from 1-7, they avoid the
highs and lows and rate between 3-5. For a graphic rating scale, all
employees are rated as average – distorts evaluations
Strictness/leniency – mainly with graphic rating scales. Required to
distinguish between high and low performers and have the tendency to
rate all employees either low or high
Appraisal bias – allow individual differences such as age, race, sex to
affect appraisal ratings that employees receive.
Recency effect – ratings are based on the employees more recent
performance whether good or bad
Similar to me bias – tendency to give higher performance ratings to
employees who are perceived to be similar to the rater in some way
15.What are the 5 steps in Performance Management?
1. Defining performance expectations and goals to ensure job duties and
standards are clear to all
2. Providing ongoing feedback for coaching through open two-way
3. Conducting performance appraisal and evaluation discussions
4. Determining performance rewards/consequences such as promotions,
salary increases, bonuses
5. Conducting development and career opportunities discussions to
review each employee’s career plans
16.Legal implications of Performance Management (what must you do?)
Well documented performance records and performance appraisal
feedback to avoid legal penalties and to defend against charges of bias
based on prohibited gr