HRM 200: Test 2 Review.docx

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Human Resources Management
HRM 200
Katrina Di Gravio

Test Review 1. What is Orientation?  A procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm/company and the job and specific information they need to perform their jobs satisfactorily.  It helps in the socialization process to instill the attitudes, standards, values, and patterns of behavior that are expected by the organization  Helps prevent reality shock which creates discrepancy between what new employee expects from his/her new job and realities of it 2. What is the purpose of Orientation?  To improve job performance so that you know what your expectations are, how you are going to perform, and the culture of your organization.  To reduce first day jitters and reality shock so that people get used to the organization  To set a foundation for ongoing performance management and work- related goals  Improve productivity  Improve retention levels and reduce recruitment costs – balance supply and demand 3. What are the problems with Orientation?  Too much information in a short time leading to an overwhelmed employee  Too many forms to fill out  Little or no orientation provided – don’t know protocols, not doing a good job orienting  HR information too broad; supervisory information too detailed – you want to know specifically what is in it for you and what you get out of it 4. How can you evaluate Orientation  Employee Reaction – do they understand? Interview new employees for their opinion on usefulness of the program  Socialization Effects – how they fit in. Review new employees at regular intervals to assess progress toward understanding and acceptance of beliefs, values, norms  Cost-benefit analysis – what is the cost of orientation in terms of the money invested in them, benefits of orientation in terms of reduction in errors, rate of productivity 5. What are the 6 steps in creating a training program? 1. Training Needs Analysis 2. Instructional Design 3. Validation 4. Implementation 5. Evaluation of Training 6. How do we know if training is effective?  Training effectiveness can be enhanced by identifying the learning styles of auditory, visual and kinesthetic and personalizing the training accordingly.  Training should be easy to understand and trainees need to remember material that is meaningful.  Easy to transfer new skills and behavior from training site to job site by maximizing similarity between training and job situations  Motivate the trainee - conscientiousness 7. What are the 4 levels of evaluation?  Reaction – “How did you like the training” – see if responses are constructive  Learning – Did they take something away from it and learn what they were supposed to learn – mini assessments  Behavior –if you sent someone to training because they had anger management, poor listening, did they apply what they have learned  Results – has there been a result of this training. ROI ($), better morale, some measure is there of the results 8. Whose responsibility is employee development?  It is your own responsibility to keep your job. Employee development is the process where the employee becomes aware of personal career- related attributes and the lifelong series of activities that contribute to his or her career fulfillment 9. What factors can affect Career Choices?  Identify Career stage – age  Identify Occupation Orientation – Hollen code i. Realistic, Investigative, Social, Conventional, Enterprising, Artistic  Career anchors – concern you will not give up for the sake of job i. Technical/functional, managerial competence, creativity, autonomy and independence, security, service dedication, pure challenge, lifestyle 10.What is management development?  Any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes or increasing skills. It helps to achieve business strategy.  The management-development process consists of: i. assessing HR needs to achieve strategic objectives HRP ii. creating a talent pool iii. developing managers  What do we need in our managers (KSA), when do we need them to step in their roles (how many years do we have) how are we going to get these skills (outsource them or bring people in) 11. Name 3 techniques to develop managers? On-the-job Management  Developmental Job Rotation – 6-8 months in a role  Coaching/Understudy Approach – job shadow or mentor them to give perspective about the job  Action Learning – releasing people from their regular work to achieve new KSAs Off-the-job Management  Case study– group of people get together to work in the case, how they work together  Management games - create hypothetical scenario and layout how they will resolve it  Outside seminars  College/university related programs  Role playing  Behavior modeling  In-house development centers – help with specific skills, how to challenge and change individuals, re-establish values, belief in blending in role will improve themselves and organization  Conferences of professional associations – cross business team approach with broader spectrum 12.Name 4 of the 8 performance management methods? (describe)  Graphic Rating Scale – scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each. The employee is then rated by identifying the score that best describes his or her level of performance for each trait. Not very detailed and not popular because it does not give information about performance  Alternation ranking method – rank employees from best to worst on a particular trait and only knows who the best and worst employee is. Does not help people in between improve, not specific, not popular  Paired comparison method – rank employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of employees for each trait and indicating the better employee of the pair. Does not give enough detail about the performance and not told what to improve on.  Forced distribution method - predetermined percentages of ratees are placed in various performance categories. There will always be people in the bottom percentage and not given any feedback or enough information about what they were evaluated on  Critical incident method - keeping a record of uncommonly good or undesirable examples of an employee’s work-related behavior and reviewing it with the employee at predetermined times. Gives explanations on how to improve and is used with another method (narrative performance for better explanation). Halo/pitchfork creates bias  Narrative forms – extension of critical incident , has more details and examples, suggested for identifying specific issues and presenting a performance improvement plan.  BARS - appraisal method that aims to combine the benefits of narratives, critical incidents, and quantified ratings by anchoring a quantified scale with specific narrative examples of good and poor performance – high quality results i. Generate critical incidents ii. Develop performance dimensions iii. Reallocate incidents iv. Scale the incidents v. Develop the final instrument  MBO – managed against the objectives of organization’s goals, set and discuss department goals, individual goals (Expected results), performance reviews, feedback  Computerized/web-based - enables managers to keep computerized notes on employees, combine these with ratings on several performance traits, and then generate written text to support each part of the appraisal 13.What are two problems with Performance Appraisal?  Validity and Reliability  Rating scale problems 14.Name and describe 3 of the 6 rating scale problems?  Unclear performance standards – unfair appraisals because traits and degrees of merit are open to interpretation.  Halo effect – rating of an employee on one trait biases the way that the person is rated on other traits (reliability). This is especially true with employees who are specially friendly toward the supervisor  Central tendency – if the rating scale ranges from 1-7, they avoid the highs and lows and rate between 3-5. For a graphic rating scale, all employees are rated as average – distorts evaluations  Strictness/leniency – mainly with graphic rating scales. Required to distinguish between high and low performers and have the tendency to rate all employees either low or high  Appraisal bias – allow individual differences such as age, race, sex to affect appraisal ratings that employees receive.  Recency effect – ratings are based on the employees more recent performance whether good or bad  Similar to me bias – tendency to give higher performance ratings to employees who are perceived to be similar to the rater in some way 15.What are the 5 steps in Performance Management? 1. Defining performance expectations and goals to ensure job duties and standards are clear to all 2. Providing ongoing feedback for coaching through open two-way communication 3. Conducting performance appraisal and evaluation discussions 4. Determining performance rewards/consequences such as promotions, salary increases, bonuses 5. Conducting development and career opportunities discussions to review each employee’s career plans 16.Legal implications of Performance Management (what must you do?)  Well documented performance records and performance appraisal feedback to avoid legal penalties and to defend against charges of bias based on prohibited gr
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