EXAM NOTES.docx

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Department
Human Resources Management
Course
HRM 200
Professor
Richard Ennis
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 1: - Human Resources Management is defined as managing people in an organization to drive successful organizational performance and achievement of organization’s strategic goals 1. It is done by managing Human Capital; knowledge, education, training, skills, & expertise - In terms of HR strategy; company’s competitive environment + its internal strengths and weaknesses are what determines a company’s strategic situation which motivates its strategic plan. In conjunction with the company’s HR strategy they will modify organizational performance. - HR has two types of responsibilities; strategic & organizational. Strategic; the company’s plan to balance its internal strengths & weaknesses with external opportunities in order to maintain a competitive advantage. Operational; employee hiring, training, benefits, communication 1. Metrics; it basically a more empirical measure of the results of HR. We use a balance score card; a measuring system that translates organizational strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures. - There are external and internal environmental influences which will affect how HRM works. External is economic conditions, labour market issues, workforce issues, government, technology, & globalization. While Internal is Organizational culture, Organizational Climate, & Empowerment. 1. External Environment  Economic Conditions; unemployment levels, productivity levels, growth of service sector , Value of the Canadian dollar, diversity of local economy  Labour Market Issues; union movements, contingent & part-time employees for non-standard jobs, talent pool , workforce demographic • Increased workforce diversity and age  Workforce Issues; demographic issues, education, & non-standard/contingent workers • There are 4 generations at most which can be working each with its own defining characteristics; Traditionalist, Baby boomers, Generation X, Generation Y. These have impact on private and public sector; when older workers retire. Private sector will suffer losses in terms of experienced leaders, little shortage of workers, loss in relationship with customers, difficulty fulfilling current business demands, large problem in meeting growth targets, loss of relationship with suppliers, and the reduced ability to relate with an aging customer base. While in Public sector the more major concern is loss of corporate knowledge, shortage of technical & other specialized skills, & shortage of leadership challenge. • There are plans implemented to retain mature workers by allowing more flexible hours, pension benefits and leaves of absence with retirement counseling and financial planning. Etc  Government; insure that the policies and practices comply with new & changing laws  human rights, employment standards, labour relations, occupational health & safety, worker’s compensation  Technology; twitter,facebook & linkedin etc issues are raised concerning data control, accuracy, right to privacy & ethics.  Globalization; business operations extend abroad as an emergence of a one world economy therefore increasing international competition with multinational corporations, seeking cheap skilled labour. For the HRM department, familiarization of employment legislations and ethical dilemmas are lower vs those in Canada  (Environmental Concerns);ecosystem fragility therefore these issues are increasingly important to people around the world and may be a trend in sustainability and carbon footprint management. 2. Internal Environmental Influences  Organizational Culture; core values, beliefs & assumptions within the organization and its seen in the company’s mission statement  Organizational Climate; atmosphere that exists and impacts employees  influenced by leadership, HR policies, organizational communication  Empowerment; providing workers with skills & authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers - How HRM was created started from the need to increase performance in workplace. Scientific Management  Human Relations Movement  Human Resources Movement Lecture 2 - There is a changing legal emphasis from Compliance to Valuing Diversity. Now in terms of hierarchy in law there is Constitutional law> Legislated acts of Parliament > Regulations > Common Law > Contract Law. Employees must abide and are protected under such laws. 1. There are legal jurisdictions that will subjugate the employment demographic into two; provincial/territorial employement and federal employment. Provincial/territorial governs 90% of Canadian workers under the employment standards act. While Federal employment governs 10% of federal civil services, Crown corporations & agencies, transportation, banking & communications.  Employment StandardsAct (Labour Standard Legislations); • Minimum employee entitlements such as wages, paid holidays, vacation, maternity, parenting & adoption leaves, bereavement & compassionate care leave, termination notice & overtime pay • Set limit on maximum numbers of hours permitted per week/day • Principle of equal pay equal work 2. Constitutional Law; Charter of Rights & Freedoms  guarantees fundamental freedoms to all Canadians; right to equal protection and equal benefit of law without discrimination.  Discrimination is preference based on prohibited grounds thereby impairing a person’s rights to full & equal recognition. There are two types of Discrimination; • Intentional – based on association • Unintentional – Constructive/ systemic, To compensate for this there is a requirement for Reasonable accommodations until undue hardship  Permissible Discrimination due to a bonofide occupational requirement. - Harassment; unwelcome behavior demeans, humiliates, embarrasses what a reasonable person known would be unwelcome. There are two types of sexual harassment; Sexual Coercion (Leverage); direct consequence to employment status, & SexualAnnoyance; no direct link. 1. nPoliciesl have a clear workplace anti-harrassment policy, information for victims, employee rights & responsibilities, employer & manager’s responsibilities, clear workplace anti-harassment policy, no penalties for retaliation against a complaint, guidelines for appeals, other options such as union grievance procedures & human rights complaints, and how policy will be monitored & adjusted 2. LegislatedActs of Parliament; Employment EquityAct  protects women, visible minorities, persons with disabilities and aboriginal peoples by removing employment barriers and promoting equality  Employment Equity Program Implementation; Senior Management Commitment & support  Data Collection &Analysis  Employment Systems Review  Plan Development  Implementation  Monitoring, Evaluation, Revising - Diversity Management by including employment equity using activities to integrate employees in multicultural workforce & diversity to enhance organizations effectiveness Lecture 3 - There is a strategic importance of Technology in HRM in order to manage employment & a tool/information system for stakeholders.Able to achieve 3 key objectives; Strategic alignment with business objectives, business intelligence (relevant data), effectiveness & efficiency (HRM undergoing changes reduce lead times, costs and service levels) 1. Traditional HR changed in that there is decreased transactional activity, increased client/customer focus and increased delivery of strategic services  Emerging Role of HR professional; Mastery of HR technology  strategic contribution  business knowledge  personal credibility  data management  Financial Management  HR delivery - HRIS or Human Resources Information System is an integrated system used to gather, store and analyze information regarding a organization human resources 1. Its key functions are to create & maintain employee records, legal compliance, forecast & plan, HR requirements, talent management/knowledge management, strategic alignment,& enhancing decision making  Employee, Manager, HRM 2. Subsystem; employment equity, administration, time & attendance, Training &development/knowledge management, pension administration, compensation & benefits administration, payroll interface, performance evaluation, organizational management, recruitment & applicant tracking, labour relations and Health & safety. 3. Implementation of HRIS:Adoption-Determining the Need (needs analysis)  implementation (project teams selected; data conversion, configuration, system testing, privacy & security)  Integration (training) - Electronic HR; technology allow intranetwork of organization’s HR information in order to improve overall HR service delivery 1. Employee Self-service (ESS): allow employees to access and manage their personal information directly  Direct way to manage information using portals which reduces HR costs, basic administrative/ transactional HR activities are shifted towards employees 2. Management Self-Serve: allows the managers to access and mange a range of information about themselves & their employees at which HR-related paperwork is handled there  The benefits of it are reduced administrative costs, enhanced services, increased strategic opportunities for HR, increased employee satisfaction, reduced process steps 3. Interactive Voice Response (IVR): telephone touch-tone interact with database to acquire information - HR Technology Strategy is the plan to increase effectiveness of HR programs, processes & service delivery by shortening cycle times, increase customer service levels, reduce costs & add new service capabilities - Watson Wyatt has identified several major trends which influence HR in the future 1. Increase use of portals & intranets & focus on virtual technology 2. Greater access to technology & more optimization of the system 3. Enhanced focus on workforce analytics and increase focus on reducing costs 4. There will be standards for data exchanges & processes 5. Contingency planning 6. Heightened awareness of HR data privacy 7. Use of outsourcing of non-core HR related work Lecture 4 - Designing &Analyzing Jobs there are 3 types of structures an organization can take shape upon Structure Breakdown Characteristics Bureaucratic President > Vice-presidents > Top to bottom management Directors > Managers > Staff approach, many levels of hierarchy communication channels and career paths, highly specialized jobs with narrowly defined job description, focus on independent performance Typical Manufacturing Organization Flat Owner > Managers >Associates Decentralized management Approach, few levels & multi- directional communication, broadly defined jobs & job descriptions, emphasis on team & on product development Typical Research & Development Organization Matrix Marketing, Finance, Sales & Each job has two components, Production covering its aspects in functional & product. Each ProductsA, B,& C division under its component & product executive - Job design is the process of systemically organizing works into tasks required to perform a job 1. Job; group of related activities/duties for one or more employees 2. Position; collection of tasks/responsibilities performed by one person - When making a Job design you must consider the Job specialization, BehavioralAspects, Ergonomic Aspects and the Increasing Job flexibility. 1. JobAnalysis is what you approach next to determine the tasks, duties & responsisbilities of each jobs and the human KSAO required to perform it. The steps are:  Identify what information will be used for  Review Relevant Background Information  Select Representative Positions/ Jobs to beAnalyze  Analyze the Job  ReviewAnalysis with incumbent/supervisor  Develop Job Description/ Job Specification - Where to collect JobAnalysis Information; QUALITATIVE using interviews, questionnaires, observations & participant diary/ log 1. Observations; In a structured observations people go about their work and you record frequency of their behaviours/ nature of performance on forms prepared in advance. In Unstructured people go to work and describe behaviours & tasks performed. Combination part of the form is prepared in advanced & unstructured.  Advantage; Because the 3 party is a superior it is assumed they have more credibility and ability to perform the task good judge less likely to fake information, and focuses more on reality than on perceptions  Disadvantage; observations can be influenced by the mood/ behavior of the person being observed, meaningless for jobs requiring mental effort, not useful for jobs with a long job cycle 2. Questionnaire; In structured ask about work using fixed responses, unstructured ask to write essays to describe performed, combination is half-half  Advantage; inexpensive, structured questions easy for computer analysis, good when employees are widely scatter or data must be collected for large number  Disadvantage; developing & testing questionnaire can be time-consuming & costly. Depends on communication skills of respondents, does not allow for probing and tends to focus on the perceptions of the job. 3. Diary/Log; In structured recorded activities on several days/weeks in booklets with time increments. Unstructure ask people to record how long a period they worked on a task. Combo is part is structured part is unstructured.  Advantages: highly detailed information collected over job cycle good for long job cycles  Disadvantages: Require incumbents participation and cooperation and tends to focus on perceptions of the job so not delving deep enough 4. Individual Interview; Structured read questions or fixed response choices; must be face to face. Unstructured ask questions provide general response choices. Combination part is unstructured and part is structured.  Advantage; provide opportunity to explain the need and functions of job analysis Relatively quick & simple to collect data. Way more flexible than surveys allows probing to extract information on interviewee and opportunities to express views or vent frustrations that might go unnoticed.Activities and behaviors may be reported that would been missed during observations.  Disadvantage; depends on the rapport between interviewer and respondent. May suffer from validity/reliability problems and information is distorted due t outright falsification or honest misunderstanding. 5. Group Interviews; Structured, Unstructured, & Combination is same as individual interview except more than 1 person being interviewed.  Advantage: groups do better than individuals with open ended problem solving and reliability/validity are likely to be higher than with individuals due to member cross check  Disadvantage; cost more because more people are taken away from their jobs to participate. Like individual interview it tends to focus on the perceptions of the job. - Methods of Collecting JobAnalysis Information QUANTITATIVE through PositionAnalysis Questionnaire, Functional JobAnalysis, and National Occupational Classification (NOC). 1. PositionAnalysis Questionnaire; questionnaire which scores on 6 dimensions of a job requirement concerning its duties and responsibilities. The 6 dimensions are information input, mental processes, work output (physical activities/tools), relationships with others, job context (physical & social environment) and other job characteristics (pace & structure) 2. Functional JobAnalysis; Classification of job based on types and amounts of responsibility for data, people and things. Preformance standards and training requirements are also identified. 3. National Occupational Classification (NOC); reference tool for writing job descriptions and job specifications made by the federal government HRSDC and contains comprehensive standaridized description of about 30 000 occupations and its requirements. NOC and it counseling components which is the Career Handbook focuses on occupations rather than jobs.  Occupations are a collection of jobs that share some or all of the set main duties - Job Description; list of duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships and working conditions of a job and its one of the products of a job analysis. Information that must be included must be job identification, summary, relationships, duties & relationships, authority, performance standards/ indicators, and working conditions & physical environment. 1. They are not required by law but highly advisable and essential job duties must be clearly identified in this description. The only citeria examined should be KSAO essential for the duties. If the employee can not perform one or more essential duties because of prohibited grounds reasonable accommodation must be provided until undue hardship in accordance to Human Rights Legislation - Job Specification; is a list of human requirements KSAO needed to perform a job another product of job analysis. With accordance of Human rights Legislation qualifications written must be bonafied occupational requirements based on current job duties and responsibilities. Unjustifiably high educational/lengthy experience requirements lead to systemic discrimination.Also current incumbent qualification is not necessarily the minimum requirement since they are not necessarily under/over qualified. For entry level jobs, id the physical and mental demands is critical. - Competency based Job analysis is describing a job in terms of measurable, observable behavioral competencies an employee must exhibit to do a job well. 1. Competencies is the characteristic which enables performance of the job. 2. Note you must describe jobs in terms of competencies rather than duties as traditional job descriptions (with list of specific duties) may backfire in a high performance work system if that is your goal. Describing the job in term of competencies enables the worker to be more strategic. Measurable skills, knowledge and competencies support the employer’s performance management process. Lesson 5 - Human Resource Planning is a process of forecasting future HRM requirements to ensure that the organizations will have the required number of employees with necessary skills to meet its strategic objectives shortages/ surpluses. In order to do this you have to be able to 1. Forecast the demand for labor; must consider organizational strategic and tactical plans, economic conditions, market & competitive trends, the government and legislative issues, social concerns, technology changes, and changes in demographic. While the techniques used will be trend analysis, ratio analysis, scatter plot, regression analysis, nominal group technique, Delphi technique, managerial judgment and staffing tables. 2. Analyze the labor supply; There are internal analysis and external analysis. Internal analysis is markov analysis, skills inventory, management inventory, replacement charts & development tracking, replacement summaries & succession planning. External analysis is general economic conditions, labour market conditions, occupational market conditions. 3. Plan and implement HRM programs to balance supply & demand; Labour shortage vs Labour surplus - When trying to balance supply & demand there are 3 scenarios a) when labour demands exceed labour supply , b) when labour supply exceeds labour demands , c) when labour demands equal labour supply - Employer has a strategic plan and it will integrate into all divisions while for the HR they will be required to train/ hire personnel which will be able to fufill the strategic plan. - It is important to do some environmental scanning, as in the external environmental factors must be constantly monitored such as economic conditions, market & competitive trends, news or revised laws, social concerns related to health, childcare & education, technology changes and demographic changes. - Flex time; employees build their workday around a core of midday hours - Compressed work week; employees work 4 ten hour days instead of the usual five 8 hour days - Flex Year; Work arrangement under which employees can choose at 6 month intervals the number of hours they want to work each month over the next year Lecture 6 - The quality of the HRM department depends on a strategic perspective of recruitment. It is important to convey good employer branding; impression of the organization and its benefits of its employees from a candidate. This branding will occur when the candidate interacts with the company through the recruitment process  company website, HR sends acknowledgment letter, greeted by receptionist, HR person involved in interview is representative of organizations culture and values. There are 3 steps to employer branding; 1. Define target audience, where to find them and what they want from employer 2. Develop employee value proposition  why is this organization such a great place 3. Communication of brand by incorporating value proposition in recruitment efforts - The recruitment process; ID job openings  specify job requirements  select methods of recruitment  generate pool of qualified applicants  Internal Recruitment; advantage – competence is rewarded, committed to company goal, allow long term perspective, more accurate assessment of person’s skills, less orientation required Disadvantages – discontent with unsuccessful candidates, if one is preferred time consuming to post & interview, possibility of inbreeding and employee dissatisfaction of new boss o Recruiting within the organization requires job posting, Human Resources records & skills inventory  External Recruitment; advantages – larger and more diverse candidate pool, acquisition of skills & knowledge not currently available within organization & new ways to solve problems, eliminates employee rivalry & competition, potential cost saving results in hiring individuals who have skills rather than training them o Type of job affects recruitment method; terms that stay important within the methods are yield ratio  can be expressed on recruiting yield pyramind & time lapse data .  For advertising there is a AIDA principle used to make successful ad. Attention, Interest, Desire, Action - 3 sources of non-permenent staff are temporary help-agencies, contract workers, & employee leasing. - Why do some company’s require you to fill in standard application form?; information collected in uniform manner, specifically requested information rather than hidden information from candidate, if form must be completed on company premises it’s a sample of candidate’s work, provide written authorization rather than upon request reference checking, acknowledge information is true signature and optional section regarding designated group member status  Human Rights Legislation again!: there are specific questions that can’t be asked on the application forms due to human rights commission.  Did you know they can use application forms to predict job performance?; Weighted application Blank (WAB); responses weighted based on statistical relations to job performance. Biographical Information Blank (BIB); data predictive of job success is scored. Lecture 7 - Selection of individuals is important because as mentioned quality of HRM determines organizational performance, high cost of inappropriate selection decisions and significant legal implications. - Typical steps in the selection process: 1. PreliminaryApplicant Screening  2. Selection Testing  3. Selection Interview  4. Background Investigation/ Reference Checking 5. Supervisory Interview & Realistic Job preview  6. Hiring decision & Candidate Notification 1. PreliminaryApplicant Screening; done by HR department, application forms resumes reviewed, with candidates meeting essential selection criteria eliminated first, closely match remaining job specifications are identified and given further consideration 2. Selection Testing; assess specific job-related skills used to screen large number of applications such as job-related skills, general intelligence, personality characteristics, mental abilities, interests & preferences. Testing must be reliable and valid.  Reliability; yielding comparable data over time due to its degree of dependability, consistency & stability  Validity; it’s an accurate predictor of what is intended to measure. There are 4 different types of validity; • Differential Validity; tool that predicts the performance of all possible employee subgroups such as white males, women visible minorities etc • Criterion-Related Validity; tool that predicts/correlates the important elements of work behavior • Content Validity; tool which samples the knowledge/skills needed to perform a job • Construct Validity; tool which measures the theoretical construct/trait in the individual necessary to perform a job  The tests used in the selection test cognitive abilities, motor/physical abilities, personality & interest, achievement tests, work sampling, management assessment centres, situational training, micro-assessment, & physical examination which includes substance abuse testing. • You need physical test in selection process because; check if applicant qualifies for physical requirement & document accommodation requirements, establish record/baseline of applicant health for purpose of future insurance & compensation claims, reduced absenteeism & accidents by identifying any health issues/concerns that need to be addressed. • In Canada employers cannot screen candidates for substance abuse as its considered a disability under the human rights code 3. Selection Interview; used to assess applicant qualifications, behavior, gather information to predict future performance, communicate information about job, promote organization & determine how well applicant would fit in.  Applicant objective is to present positive image, sell their skills and gather information about job & organization.  Types of interviews can be classified according to degree of structure , content , and way the interview is administrated .  Interviewer can not violate human rights, No illegal differential treatment 4. Background investigation/ Reference Checking; information must be verified, but obtain a written permission. Top 7 resume lies; dates of employment, Job title (inflated rank), Salary level, Criminal Record, Education, Professional licenses, Ghost Companies 5. Supervisory interview & Realistic Job preview (RJP); supervisor is best qualified to assess job knowledge and skills therefore the supervisor can answer job-specific questions and feel comfortable with new hire 6. Hiring decision & Candidate Notification; immediate supervisor makes final hiring decision by using statistical strategy; identify valid predictor and weight them statistically ex. Multiple regression. Telephone first then written employment offer which states terms & conditions, starting date, starting salary, probation period etc Lecture 8 - During Employee Orientation (On boarding) it’s a procedure that informs employees of basic background info about the firm & the job. It’s a good chance for socialization and reality shock. The purpose of an orientation is for improved job performance, reduce jitters & reality shock, foundation of ongoing performance management, improved productivity, improved retention levels & reduced recruitment costs - There are special orientation situations such as a diverse workforce, mergers & acquisitions, union vs. non-union employees, multi-location organization - To evaluate the effectiveness of orientation programs, you can assess employee reaction, socialization effects, cost/benefit analysis - Remember new employee’s hired are not only the lower level but executive/senior level positions so for executive integration; is the process at which new executive must learn unspoken dynamic about organization - After orientation the training process must occur and it occurs in multiple steps; training needs analysis  instructional design  validation  implementation  evaluation of training 1. Training needs Analysis; determine what training is required, explain to employee what job entails and break down to subtask. Broken up into task analysis and performance analysis. 2. Instructional Design; prepare curriculum, training material support learning objectives. There is on job training, apprenticeship, informal learning, job instruction training, classroom technique, audiovisual technique, programmed learning, vestibule/simulated training. New type is E-learning lol which is using a computer. LOL 3. Validation; often overlooked LOL 4. Implementation; Now do it 5. Evaluation of Training; Assess the reaction, learning, behavior and the results. There is an evaluation form for this.  Training for special purpose ex. Literacy & essential skills, customer service, diversity, teamwork, first-time supervisors, global business Lecture 9 - Career Planning & Development; is the process which an employee becomes aware of personal career-related attributes & lifelong series of activities that contribute to his/ her career fulfillment - Career development is made by accepting responsibility of own career, gaining reputable attributes and networking. While the manager’s role in career development is to provide timely and objective feedback, offer developmental assignments & support, participate in career development discussion, act as coach, appraiser & referral agent. Employer’s role in career development provide training & development opportunities, offer career information and career programs & offer career options. - Alife time will affect career choices & stage we are at; Growth stage (0-14y.o)  exploration stage (15-24 y.o)  establishment stage (24-44 y.o)  maintenance stage (45-65 y.o)  decline stage (retirement) - Factors that affect Career Choice or orientation at which you want to position your occupation you should be RAESIC; RealisticArtistic Enterprising Social Investigative Conventional.Also you should identify your career anchor; a value/concern you will not give up if your choice must be made. - Note: 2/3 of transfers rejected are due to family/spousal reasons - When you are making promotion decisions;  Is Seniority/ competence the rule?  How is competence measured?  Is the process formal/ informal? 
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