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INDEV 100 Final: Comprehensive notes

30 Pages

International Development
Course Code
Prateep Nayak

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Week 1: What is Development? Development: A process from one condition or state of affairs to another A process - Normative = goal oriented - A starting point: initial condition - A destination or end point - Determining the ‘destination’; how to get there - Baseline or ‘indicators’ or progress - Referent object = who/what to be developed Labelling in International Development  Exploring answers for the 5 Ws and an H lead to labelling and branding o The source of politics  Ideas of poverty, wealth, and relationships among nations are evolving o Compromise and contestations  What labels do? o Shape public policy-making o Legitimize current practices o Can create resistance Politics of Labelling  Development is a comparative concept - ‘the state of not being developed’  Old labels: o Backward societies/areas (economically)  This term implies that first world intervention is needed to overcome underdevelopment  It implies a universal measurement of development and that all nations can be assessed against this standard o The non-aligned movement o The Third World  New Labels: o Newly industrialized Countries (NICs) – emerging markets o ‘Developing’  Classification is determined by GDP o Fourth world  Poorest of the poor  Failed states  Aboriginal people’s societies Developing world is categorized by: - A rich diversity of human experience and social organization - A vast variety or political organizations - Dual Society: signs of material wealth coexist with poverty and basic survival Development is difficult to define and measure  Different issues and problems  Different approaches  Different levels of industrialization  Considering different segments of the population  Conceptualizing poverty  Development as an ideology of the ‘good life’ Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Total value of all goods and services produced within a country’s economy, regardless of the nationality of those involved  The key is where the production takes place  Rapid GDP growth is usually caused by rapid increases in productivity in agriculture, natural resource extraction, or industrialization GDP per capita: Measures the total market value of the goods and services produced in an economy divided by the number of people in that economy  It’s a measure of the average wealth in a country and foes not take account of how the wealth is distributed Gross National Product (GNP): Total value of goods and services produced by the citizens of a country, regardless of where that production takes place  Focus on ownership  Includes income of citizens outside the country and excludes income of foreign nationals present in the country Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): Accounts for different buying power of a dollar in different economies  A comparative indicator based on an exchange rate that equates the price of a basket of identical traded goods and services in two countries  Allows to compare average incomes in two countries Meaning of ‘Development’  Development is ‘Good Change’  Three ways the word ‘development’ is used:  Development as a VISION: A vision or description of how desirable a society is and what are its key components  Development as a HISTORICAL PROCESS: social change that takes place over long periods of time due to inevitable processes  Development as ACTION: Deliberate efforts to change things for the better (e.g. providing food aid to alleviate hunger) Week 2: A History of Development Reasons for Europe’s overseas Expansion during 1415-1715  The acquisition of fame through discovery  The expansion of Christendom through crusades  The urgency for basic resources brought on by population pressures  The desire for wealth and economic power Motives for European expansion (late 19 Century) Economic motives: - Limits of industrial revolution o Dwindling economic resources within Europe when revolution began - Inputs of industrial capitalism: investment opportunities and consumers - Search for new market Political motives: - Great powers’ competition for new territories - Rush to seize unclaimed territories - Opportunity to expand as a zero-sum game - Risky to wait and watch: discovery of diamond and gold - Imperial powers’ race to keep peace with their neighbours National motives: - Search for national grandeur ‘Men on the spot’ seizing an ‘opportunity’ KEY TERMS: Colony: A territory outside of Europe ruled by a European power Colonialism: The transfer of population to a new territory, where the arrivals lived as permanent settlers while maintaining political allegiance to their country of origin Colonization: a system of settling and occupying a specified territory with some peoples ruling over other peoples Imperialism: Draws attention to the way one country exercises power over another, whether though settlement, sovereignty or indirect mechanisms of control Neo-colonialism: A system in which the economies of formally independent countries remain subject to the control of others, often their former colonial powers’ Consequences of colonial rule: Positive - Helped countries develop - Brought lots of resources, such as steam engines, into the countries Negative - The colonized countries were left high and dry when the colonizers used up their resources and left - Countries became dependent on the colonizers for development More adverse impacts:  Cultural impact in terms of self-image and identity  Decision-making structures and leadership  Responsibility-taking and sense of entitlement  Sense of community and community mortality  Resource drain – impacts nation’s wealth and resources  Segregated benefits: o Extreme racial segregation in South Africa o Exploitive land revenue collection Broadly speaking, Colonialism:  Nurtures underdevelopment and encourages the culture of dependency  Weakens the legal and educational systems of the colonized country  Exploits natural resources within the colonized country and it shaped the modern trade market  Led to the dispersion of people and the blurring of communal identity  Disintegrates the political governance system of a country Colonialism is seen as detrimental to development and democracy 1. Issues of development 2. Social fragmentation 3. Post-colonial relationship between the state and the civil society 4. Colonial economic development distorted the social structure in ways that: a. Increase the power of classes that have been resistan to democracy b. Weakening those classes whose struggles for political influence and incorporation have been historically associated with the establishment of democracy 5. Continued responsiveness of the state to outside influences Week 3: Poverty, Food and Human Development Food security: When everyone has at all times access to and control over sufficient quantities of good quality food for an active healthy life Four Dimensions of Food Security Availability o Production o Distribution o Exchange Access Stability of the o Affordability other three o Allocation o Preference dimensions Use o Nutritional value o Social value o Food safety Transitory food insecurity Chronic food insecurity …is short-term and temporary long-term or persistent Occurs when… Sudden drop in the ability to produce Unable to meet minimum or access enough food to maintain a food requirements over a good nutritional status sustained period of time Results from… Short-term shocks and fluctuations in Extended periods of poverty, food availability and food access lack of assets and inadequate access to productive or Includes year-to-year variations in financial resources domestic food production, food prices and household incomes Can be overcome It is relatively unpredictable and an Long-term development with… emerges suddenly. This makes measures also used to planning and programming more address poverty, such as difficult and requires different education or access to capacities and types of intervention, productive resources, such as including early warning capacity and credit. They may also need safety net programs more direct access to food to enable them to raise their productive capacity Undernutrition: the result of prolonged low levels of food intake and/or low absorption of food consumed o Energy, vitamin and mineral deficiency Undernourishment or chronic hunger: the status of persons, whose food intake regularly provides less than their minimum energy requirement Malnutrition: a broad term for a range of conditions that hinder good health, caused by inadequate or unbalanced food intake or from poor absorption of food consumed o Undernutrition: food deprivation o Over nutrition: Excessive food intake in relation to energy requirement Who is most at risk of hunger and food insecurity?  The rural poor  The urban poor  Victims of catastrophes  Refugees Ethical reasons for reducing poverty: 1. Productivity increases with a healthy population 2. Environmental degradation is reduced 3. Social conflict reduction contributes to democracy and social stability 4. It could be an answer to the fight against terrorism and other forms of extremism Poverty: The lack of human, physical, and financial capital needed to sustain livelihoods, and from inequalities in access to, control of, and benefits from political, social or economic resources Four approaches to understanding poverty:  Income/consumption (dollar value benchmark) (IC) o The lack of means to purchase basic goods and services o Inadequate access to basic goods like food and water o Types of poverty:  Relative (measured against social standards)  Absolute (measured against benchmark)  Moderate ($2/day)  Extreme (below $1.90/day)  Capabilities (CA) o Insufficient knowledge, health or skills to fulfil normal livelihood functions o Human Development Index (HDI)  Life expectancy, education, per capita income  Social Exclusion (SE) o Concerned with policies that eliminate discrimination and promote affirmative action on human right grounds  Participatory Assessment (PA) o An approach concerned not so much with a way of conceptualizing poverty but with ways of getting people to participate themselves in decisions about what it means to be poor and bringing about sustainable livelihoods Five theories of poverty: 1. Poverty caused by individual deficiencies 2. Poverty caused by cultural belief system 3. Poverty caused by economic, political, and social distortions or discrimination 4. Poverty caused by geographical disparities 5. Poverty caused by cumulative and cyclical interdependencies Opposing views: Right-wing: poor only have themselves to blame for wrong economic policies, civil wars, or geography and climate change  Poverty is an individual phenomenon  People are in poverty because they are lazy, uneducated, ignorant, or otherwise inferior in some manner  If this were true, it would follow that impoverished people are basically the same people every year Left-wing: Poverty as a global construct arises from the economization of life and forced integration into the world economy  Poverty is a structural phenomenon  Impoverished people are not the same people every year Characteristics of poverty:  Multidimensional o Deprivations are not only related to basic material resources such as food, shelter and medical treatment, but also to social resources such as access to education, information and respect  Complex and Dynamic o The conditions of poverty are interconnected, shared among people experiencing similar hardships and difficult to overcome  Avoidable o The idea of poverty implies that measures can be taken to prevent is  Collective responsibility o Society at all levels has a collective responsibility to reduce extreme poverty and to forge new kinds of social relationships between poor and non-poor people  Contextually defines o People are not poor in an absolute sense, but in relation to a particular socio- economic context The Eight Millennium Development Goals: 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development Week 4: Environment and Development Post WWII Development Policies and the Environment Environment has been affected by:  Emphasis on industrialization  Emphasis on cash crops  MNCs/TNCs lack of accountability  Emphasis on large scale projects (e.g. dams) Sustainable Development: Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Poverty and the Environment - Some of the poorest people live in ecologically-marginal areas that can only support a bare subsistence life - Women often suffer the most from the impacts of environmental degradation - Economic criteria are not enough to understand the nexus of poverty and environment Property Rights: Foundation of what you can or cannot ask for  Well-defined property rights are needed for individual economic benefits as well as for environmental protection  Neo-liberal solution: privatization of state and common lands and the granting of exclusive private rights to common resources Tragedy of the Commons: The tragedy of the commons occurs when individual users make high demand on resources, do not communicate with one another and act independently taking only their own expected return into account Hardin’s theory led to: o Privatization of natural resources o Increase coercive power of the state Four different types of property rights governing natural resources: 1. Open access: Free for all  The absence of well-defined property rights. Access to the resource is unregulated and is free and open to everyone 2. Private Property  The resource is righted in either an individual or institution  You have the right to sell private property 3. Communal Property  The resource is held by an identifiable community or interdependent users  You must respect that other people are using the common resource as well 4. State property  Rights to the resource are vested exclusively in government which in turn makes decisions concerning access to the resource and the level and nature of exploitation Property Rights: 1. Privatization does not always contribute to sustainable development 2. Privatization can lead to greater social inequalities 3. Nor does state control facilitate development and sustainability 4. The rule of capture can exacerbate environmental degradation  The first person to capture such a resource owns it 5. Role of justice in the process of achieving development and sustainability Environmental Justice  Utilitarianism – aggregate consequences to everyone in the society o Justice is what is beneficial to the most o Greatest good for the greatest number  Libertarianism – Freedom of individual to make their choices freely through a free market o Justice is what is beneficial to the strong o Theory of “minimal state”  Contractarianism – Individuals reach a consensus on a social contract that includes basic institutions and guiding principles for a just society o Justice is what is beneficial to the poor Four basic types of justice 1. Distributive: Outcome oriented  Focus on fairly distributes outcomes, rather than on the process of arriving as such outcomes 2. Procedural: Process oriented  Focus on fairness of the procedures leading to the outcome i. Democratic decision-making procedures as an element and condition of justice 3. Corrective: Repair and rectify  Attempts to restore the victim (whether individual or community) to the condition before the unjust activity took place 4. Social: Just society and fair treatment  Fair treatment and just share of societal/environmental benefits Environmental Justice as Social Justice Helps us understand: - Environmental concerns are not separate from cultural and other aspects of life - Marginalized people do not have compartmentalized problems - Is it possible to move towards social-environmental justice? - Social context that enables/empowers people to live fairly within the environment and vice-versa Week 5: Theories, Approaches, and Trends The Welfarist School/Approach - When one or more persons do not attain a level of economic well-being deemed to constitute a reasonable minimum by the standards of that society o Economic welfare o Social welfare Welfarism: Judging the goodness of states of affairs only by utility of information The Basic Needs School - The sustained ability/inability of a family to meet its basic needs for: o Survival  Food and nutrition, water and sanitation, health and clothing o Security  Income, shelter, peace, and security o Empowerment  Basic education and functional literacy, psychological and family care, and participation in political processes - Not welfare or charity but as a productivity-oriented approach, aims at increasing the productive income of the poor o Productive skills o Productive income-earning assets - BNH was a technocratic program that viewed the poor as target groups rather than participants in development The Capability School/Approach - Makes room for a variety of doing and being as important in themselves o Not just because they may yield utility - In this sense, the perspective of capabilities provides a fuller recognition of the variety of ways in which lives can be enriched or impoverished The Human Development Approach - A process of enlarging people’s choices and enhancing human capabilities o The range of things people can be and do o Human Development Index (HDI)  Life expectancy, Education, and per capita income Development as Freedom Approach - Having the capacity to openly and freely determine goals and act on a collectively chosen path - Freedom that enables people to: o Live long and healthy lives o Have access to knowledge and a decent standard of living o Participate in the life of their community and decisions affecting their lives Human Rights Approach  Poverty (non-development) is a violation of human rights  The poor are entitled to demand that others meet international law obligations geared to the reduction of poverty  International aid agencies have ‘mainstreamed’ human rights as an approach to poverty reduction Modernization Theory  Modernization theory scholars stress the transition from “traditional” to “modern” society by arguing that there is a “natural evolution” of societies from one stage to the other  They stress the importance of societies being open to change and see reactionary forces (tradition) as restricting development  For a country to be seen as modern, modernization theorists say is must undergo an evolutionary advance in science and technology which in turn would lead to an increased standard of living o Modernization theory follows in the footsteps of the developed world; it looks at what the developed world has done to get to where it is today  Modernization theory emphasizes the importance of values and norms as drivers of development o Responsibility for economic “backwardness” lies with societies of the “third world” or “global south”  Development occurs when citizens of poor countries adopt virtues of the developed North o If they fail to do so, they remain in a pathological, undeveloped state Traditional Modern  Superstition  Science  ‘Backward’  ‘Forward’  Irrational  Rational  Savage  Civil  Fate  Control  Subsistence  Surplus  Simplicity  Complexity  Rural  Urban  Oral history  Written History  Non-white  White  To be suited  To study Development in Stages - Human societies likened to social organisms that passed through stages of development and were susceptible to pathologies or disease - Rostow’s stages of development theory: Argued that a society at first was traditional, undifferentiated, and underdeveloped o Then entered stage of possible modernization with exposure to developed society o Ultimately moves along path to development as more efficiently scientific and technological diffusions occur Rostow’s 5 Stages of Economic Growth: 1. Traditional Society:  Low levels of technology, poverty, primary production and traditional values 2. Preconditions for take-off  Creation of national state, trade expansion, and increases in investments 3. Take-off:  Higher productivity in industry and agriculture than population growth 4. Drive to maturity:  Greater technological development and integration into the world economy  Must maintain this to achieve the fifth stage 5. High mass consumption society:  Higher incomes and consumption beyond basic needs Criticisms of Modernization Theory: 1. It’s ethnocentric a. It devalues traditional values and social institutions b. It ignores increasing inequality within and between countries c. It is not a neutral theory as it suggests because it promotes western capitalist values 2. Education in developing world mainly benefits small, local elites a. Why put money into school systems knowing education won’t stay in your country post-graduation? 3. It assumes unlimited natural resources for industrial expansion 4. There is no, on single way to advancement and historical context is also important 5. The cultures of developing countries may be a response to economic insecurity and low levels of material well-being not the cause of it Dependency Theory Criticizes modernization theory  Claims that lack of development is due to the history of colonialism and neo-colonialism (imperialistic interventions)  Claims that the elites in traditional societies collaborated in the underdevelopment of their own countries  Argues that is was impossible for traditional societies to catch up to modern ones Key elements: - Focuses on country’s position in global political economy - Countries are located either of the: o Core  Is comprised of earlier industrializing countries that could use industrial might to pursue imperial expansion  Controls capital and technology needed by periphery  Countries that could industrialize successfully could exercise domination over less developed countries o Periphery  Is comprised of countries historically being integrated into global political economy in subordinate positions – often as colonies of imperial powers  Provides raw material and cheap labour for core  Concentrates on few primary commodities (e.g. cocoa)  Are vulnerable to volatility of raw material prices  Are often dependent on one core country (trade partner concentration)  Depend on core for capital, technology, and knowledge Predicted outcomes for periphery  Economic o Results in continued underdevelopment i.e. poverty  Social o Produces inequality, conflict within periphery  Political o Reinforces authoritarian government within periphery Week 6: Gender and Development Sex: Male/female – biologically determined Gender:  Masculine/feminine: socially constructed models  Masculinist/feminist: political positions ‘Femininity and masculinity – the terms that denote one’s gender – refers to a complex set of characteristics and behaviours prescribed for a particular sex by society and learned through the socialization experience’ Gender does not equal Sex  Varies across cultures, races, classes, age, groups o “act like a man”  Models of masculinity/femininity are not timeless or separable from the contexts in which they are observed  Gender rests not on biological sex differences but on interpretations of behaviour that are culturally associated with sex differences Social organization and Gender  Construction of gender identities related to how cultures organize work, power and pleasure along gender-differentiated lines  The way we think about who people are (images and identities) is inseparable from what we expect people to do (roles and activities)  Aristotle on the organization of society: head; heart; stomach Masculine Feminine  Strong  Weak/vulnerable  Protector  Protected  Provider  Provided for  Independen  Communal t  Caring/nurturing  Security  Private  Public  Supporting  ‘doing’ Essentialism: A belief that things have a set of characteristics that make them what they are  E.g. the view that categories of people (heterosexuals and homosexuals) have intrinsically different and characteristic natures or dispositions Hegemony: When powerful actors in a given society or at the international level do not have to rely heavily on force to get citizens to accept their visions of the good life, the common good and the concept of development as it has been articulated in a prevailing theory of development. Hegemonic-masculinity: Proposed practices that promote the dominant social position of men, and subordinate social position of women Three approaches on gender development: Women in Development (WID)  Goal = modernization  Women want to participate Women and Development (WAD)  Not absent; already participate  Embedded in a subordinate way Gender and Development (GAD)  Not just about women  Look at the whole system and its differential impacts on men and women UNICEF’s WASH – the lifecycle of a girl: 1. First five years 2. Primary education 3. Secondary education 4. Motherhood and antenatal Empowerment: To determine choices in life and to influence the direction of change, through the ability to gain control over crucial material and non-material resources  E.g. fertility, mobility and life choices  E.g. education Physical empowerment: control over one’s own body Economic empowerment: access and control over the means of production Political empowerment: gaining a legitimate and authoritative political voice leading to self- determination Socio-cultural empowerment: having the right to an independent identity, a sense of worth and self-respect Globalization - Women are th
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