Notes (INTST 101).pdf

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University of Waterloo
International Studies
Brian Orend

INTST101 - 002 Orend Core Concepts • “All of Gaul is divided into three parts.” - Julius Caesar 4 Parts of a Country • environment: • countries are the owners of the territory (oil, minerals, forests, water, animals...) • airspace over 12 miles above a country’s ground is considered public • water beyond 200 miles from the coastline is considered public • Antarctic is public • Arctic is shared between several countries near the North Pole • countries haven’t found a way to extract the gases that are found in the Poles yet • Water-Diamond Paradox • water: essential to life but it is available so it is cheap (high demand, high supply) • diamond: luxury but it is scarce so it is very expensive (high demand, low supply) • water is scarce in Middle East, North Africa, some parts of US, Australia • some predict that when oil runs out, countries will fight over water • population: people in a country • culture: common set of beliefs and customs among a people • high culture: “best parts” (opera, plays, arts, museum stuff, design, fashion) • low culture: how people behave daily (communication and technology, music they listen to daily, language, clothes, food, religion, moral beliefs, social etiquette) • 75-80% of internet activity is from the US; 2 billion have never used Internet • 1 billion people are illiterate, mostly females since it’s a male-dominated culture • state: • state actors: government only (municipal, provincial, federal...) • non-state actors: all other organizations that affect the country • business (multi-national corporations), media, church, education, crime, terrorism, militia, medicine, non-governmental organizations (charity), underground economy • underground economy is unreported untaxed income; government loses money • Greece, Italy, Portugal...people do favours or hire friends without reporting income • government can’t repay their debts; wait for Germans, Dutch, British for bail-out • government controls healthcare, education, membership; still very influential Nation vs. State • state: geographical location of the country • nation: group of people who consider themselves a separate and distinct group • geographical location, language, religion, historical memory, low culture, ethnicity... • nationalism: drive of a nation to have its own state • one of the main causes of social change, technological change, civil war...) Kinds of Countries • power: the ability to get what you want • hard power (buy it, bribe them, or force them at gun-point): very effective short-term • wealth (economy) • Big 3 economies are US, EU, China (figures unsure since China is neither public nor democratic; China loans money to others so it must be doing well) • other top economies are Germany (heart of the EU, historical surplus nation), Japan, Saudi Arabia (largest crude oil reserve), Russia, India, Brazil 1 INTST101 - 002 Orend • strength (military) • US, UK, Russia, N. Korea (poor, but they have nuclear weapons), Israel (giant military), India, Pakistan (India and Pakistan both have nuclear weapons) •Canada is a privileged country so we help others • N. Korea with nuclear weapons is dangerous cuz they’ll sell to anyone for money •help a country in need that has a • Germany could be a military power but they only have a small army to “atone” for the connection to us trouble they created in WW1 and WW2 •India is a poor, ex-UK colony • soft power: cultural influence that a group has over others: more effective long-term •needed electricity to grow • control others by ensuring that they think the same, act the same, have the same values •Canada sold India nuclear reactors cuz they generate the • US (Internet, Hollywood, fast food), Japan (technology, anime, sushi), France (luxury, most electricity fashion, language), Canada (reputation), diaspora (India, China, Jew), Italy (high culture) •Indians made it into a bomb 1. great powers: developed, mostly NW; lots of disagreements, rivalry, tension; don’t get along •India and Pakistan used to be • hostile towards international law, UN, co-operation; like to go their own way united under UK • possess a combination of hard and soft power •after UK left, they split India and • US, UK, France, China, Russia (soft power only in E. Europe due to difficult language) Pakistan, but poorly •Pakistani spies planted into • Japan and Germany lack the army nuclear power plant • Saudi-Arabia lacks an army, but it can single-handedly control the price of oil globally •Pakistan stole the tech for • US is a super-power (aka Colossus, Global Hegemon) due to its vast influence bombs from Indians • has control in almost all situations; global power, not just in their sphere of influence 2. middle powers: developed, mostly NW, rich; like-minded, stick together; “good guy” image • support international law, UN, co-operation (don’t have enough power individually) • Canada, Australia, Sweden, Denmark, Brazil, Argentina, Pakistan, Spain 3. small powers: not enough power to impact national affairs 4. rogue regime: goes its own way, doesn’t get along with others, creates problems • N. Korea, Iran (lots of oil + people; wants nuclear weapons, funds terrorists, bad relations with US, strongly enforce Muslim religion), Egypt Libya • US may be a rogue regime because it does what others want only if it helps them 5. failed state: can’t provide basic things that people look for in a country • healthcare, education, safety, freedom, peace, infrastructures, law, order • Somalia (very poor, dangerous, pirates off the coast...), sub-Saharan Africa, narco states (run by drug dealers) such as Afghanistan, Mexico..., Zimbabwe, Haiti • failed states and rogue regimes create problems for the international community Africa has wars that spiral • war, terrorism, corruption, poverty, crime, refugees, requesting aid around in the middle so people • emerging powers: shifting up along the scale (China, India, Germany, Pakistan, maybe US) are fleeing from country to • countries with a history of saving and surplus tend to rise country, one step ahead of the • declining powers: moving down along the scale on-coming war. • Russia’s not as powerful as it was during the Cold War • some say US is declining, though others say it’s emerging • old powers from centuries ago (UK, France...) are declining • countries with a history of spending (especially on military strength) and debt tend to fall • nothing stays the same; great powers rise and fall North vs. South • “global south”: countries primarily in the southern hemisphere; less developed • Cold War: first world (developed), second world (communist), third world (developing) • after Cold War: second world disappeared so “first world” and “third world” weren’t used • controversy with “developed” vs. “developing”; developed implies mature, perfect, grown • people in developing countries find it offensive so we call it the global south • North: wealthy, urban, educated, technologically advanced, powerful in international situations, attractive to immigrants, low population 2 INTST101 - 002 Orend • low rates of crime, unemployment, poverty • stable government, social peace, high life expectancy, high rates of life satisfaction life expectancy for males tends to be lower than for • Romani (gypsies), Natives (bad living conditions, life expectancy, health) are exceptions females because males do high • South: poor, diseased, uneducated, less technology, high population risk things (adrenaline rush, war) • violence, warfare, political instability, unemployment (1/2 the workforce is unemployed) during their teens and twenties • low rates of happiness, low average life expectancy • best and brightest people emigrate from the south, causing a brain drain • Dubai (very urban), suburbs of Rio (rich and developed) are exceptions due to oil • big migration corridors: China --> US & Canada; Mexico --> US; central/eastern Europe --> Russia & western Europe • European Colonialism and Imperialism caused the world to be divided as such • colonialism started in 1492 (Columbus) when Europeans discovered North America Europeans discovered that • Europeans rushed to take over the “New World” Natives had no natural defence to • Portuguese (Brazil), Spaniards (Central, South America), Holland (Caribbean, South smallpox so they gave them America, Africa), Belgians (Africa), France (Louisiana, Quebec, Caribbean, Africa), smallpox-infested blankets as England (everything else) “gifts” to infect and kill them • Italy and Germany tried to take over parts of Africa, even during their fascist era • land rush to take over land, labour, resources • empires have a mother country and colonies (peripheries, dependencies) 1. take over the colony through military conquest 2. politically dominate the colony 3. suck out their natural resources and intellectual assets (smart people, ideas) 4. return the country in a very poor state • force and power flow outwards to colonies; resources flow inwards to mother country • [1492 - 1975] Europeans tried to take over the world; only stopped after WW1 & WW2 drained their money so they couldn’t afford fighting each other anymore • European Imperialism was one of the most influential forces in world history • people in the global south say that there is disparity between North and South because North has been sucking out their resources for 500 years West vs. Rest • West: geographically west; means the same thing as North; • start in Ancient Greece; go west; include western Europe and most of its colonies • 7 major characteristics (idealized, not present in all Western societies, not all good) 1. individualism • society is there to serve the individuals; more important than family/togetherness • people are free to do what they want, how they want; everybody’s life counts • cocooning: protective barrier around ourselves; nothing else matters to us • suburbia: huge houses, no interaction with neighbours, drive around by yourself • rise of communications technology to feed people’s private interests • people want to be catered to; want to feel like the rulers of their world • other cultures think individualism is very unsocial, unhealthy, unrealistic 2. limited democratic government • majority rules; people get to vote; government has a limited set of powers 3. free market capitalism: buyers/sellers control, equity “equity” come from the Latin “equine” meaning horse because • private property ownership: own the means of production you possess (land, labour, only rich people could afford capital, entrepreneurship, technology) horses so only rich people could • entrepreneurial rights: free to start your own company and keep profits (profit afford to own a business motive), which encourages productivity, efficiency, wealth, diversity 3 INTST101 - 002 Orend • market controls: buyers and sellers control the market between them • money: abstract measure of value; replaced bartering bartering is a sign of a primitive society, but it is • court system: solve disputes justly becoming more common now 4. xianity: separation of Church and State because you can avoid paying tax • government isn’t run by the Church and doesn’t use Church power to impose laws 5. science and technology: commitment to sci-tech (enhance life) despite religious protest 6. urbanization: historically in the west, now a global trend; cities = culture, development 7. civil society: limited government so there’s a big group of non-government organizations • Huntington’s “The Clash of Civilization” written after the fall of the Soviet Union (1990-91) • Huntington said wars were caused by clash of ideas and values, not natural resources • predicted that Arabic and Islamic countries would be the next target for western societies • Eastern societies have no individualism, democratic government, free market capitalism, christianity (State’s job was to enforce religion; no separation at all), technology (they are anti-technology; no birth control), civil society (State won’t allow other associations to rival its power) • big cultural differences between West and Middle East more than with other civilizations • predicted that next big wars would be in the Middle East long before they started American Empire • US is an empire, even though it doesn’t formally call itself an empire land is very cheap so the US • US has all the features of an imperial core • biggest military: bases in Africa to build drones for spying in the Middle East buys lots of it for nothing unmanned planes controlled • main targets are Afghanistan (Taliban), Pakistan, Iraq remotely from the US that drop • biggest economy (until EU): everyone wants to sell to the American consumer missiles • magnet for foreign investment: Chinese companies invest in US • magnet for immigration: people earn more money; living conditions are better • most influential country • revisionist history: stories we tell about our society are self-glorifying; re-imagine history • from the first colony in Plymouth Rock (1620), they expanded in all directions • killed off or drove out the people in their way (Natives) • got free labour from slaves in Africa • US was an imperialistic project right from the start • benefits of an American Empire • global security and stability: only US can bring civility and order; prevent global anarchy • many European countries chose not to keep an army after WW1 & WW2 • China doesn’t invade other societies (just gets attacked and fights civil wars) • Russia is undependable; may end up taking over your country • economic growth: growth of GDP worldwide is parallel with growth of US power only generally speaking; rates of income inequality have never • values: US represents all 7 major characteristics of a Western country been higher so issues still persist • drawbacks of an American Empire • Chomsky: all empires are bad because they deny democracy, violate rights of colonies • US Empire is especially bad because it runs an informal empire • doesn’t declare its empire so that it isn’t burdened with the obligation to help colonies • US people are defiantly proud of how little they know about the external world • Ferguson: some empires in history have brought benefits, but not US • Rome brought peace, technology, literacy to Mediterranean for 1000 years • Britain made many great countries (US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand) • US doesn’t care about the societies they control; US people have no global desires 4 INTST101 - 002 Orend Foreign Policy • “How should we as a country relate to other countries” Realism • older, favoured by diplomats • realism: national egoism/selfishness; look out for your country’s best interests all the time • maximize your country’s hard (economy, military) and soft (culture) power • crude, sweeping realists say that realism is the essence of human nature • people and countries are power-hungry and perpetually self-serving • sophisticated realists say that selfishness is forced on us cuz we can’t depend on others • Assurance Policy: • international society isn’t well-ordered like Canada; no trust-worthy global police • in dire situations, countries can only depend on themselves • assurance (trust) is lacking due to lack of world government, common culture/values • unconstrained realism: explicit realist; don’t hide the fact that they are wholly self-serving • used by great powers since they have enough power not to have to bother hiding it US is an unconstrained realist. its two foreign policy goals are • constrained realism: still self-serving, but hidden behind a mask of idealism/co-operation national security (military) and • used by middle/small powers cuz they lack the power to just announce their selfishness free trade (economy) • it’s in our selfish interest to disguise our selfishness • people think poorly of you and ignore you if you’re an unconstrained realist so hide it Idealism • idealism: international altruism; use resources to help others, not get more resources • small-scale, gradual: do small things like inoculations, health programs, promote literacy • large-scale, sweeping: small-scale acts keep us trapped in realism, especially post-war • make a big move quickly UN was created after WW2 • game theory: branch of microeconomics that studies the choices players make in a game 2 prisoners are arrested and • Prisoners’ Dilemma accurately represents the Assurance Policy problem • idealists say co-operation will help getting countries unstuck from the Prisoners’ Dilemma separated. if they rat the other out, they walk free. if they both • some problems like pollution can only be solved multi-laterally through co-operation stay silent, they’re convicted. • organized crime use ungoverned countries as base to attack; must co-operate to solve question is whether or not the criminals trust each other National Security vs. Human Security • realists support national security; grow your army, grow your economy • idealists support human security; make people feel secure in their daily lives • health care, job security, stable income, family, education, housing, loved ones • disregard national security and pursue human security when developing the economy • economic health is a common goal between realists and idealists • Lloyd Axworthy (Canada) came up with the term “human security” in the 1990’s Mixed/Blended Foreign Policy • mixed: visionary realism, pragmatic idealism; realistic knowledge + idealistic optimism • realists view idealists as naïve, do-gooders, impose sweeping theories on a complicated world, excessively optimistic, ignorant about the world • idealists view realists as pessimistic, power-obsessed, bleak • realists bring factual detailed knowledge; focus on power/economy (need power, money) • idealists bring optimism about things changing for the better; motivation to see stuff through • smart power: no longer hard vs. soft, but realism + idealism 5 both US and SU had nuclear weapons, creating big insecurity on both sides. US deliberately cultivated a irrational and violent INTST101 - 002 Orend image so that SU would get scared of their unpredictability. consider that US is the only that has already dropped bombs on Tools of Foreign Policy • diplomacy: praise, encourage, negotiate deals (economic, political) another country • negative: threats and criticisms behind the scene US was amassing army in Saudi Arabia (SA). feared that • US vs. Soviet Union (SU) during the Cold War (CW) • Iraq vs. Kuwait as Iraq invaded to steal its oil Saddam Hussein would use • Brian Mulroney’s free-trade agreement with US mustard gas like last time. George Bush Sr. sent a hand- • economic incentives: cash, trade opportunities written threat to Iraqi diplomat. • negative: rich countries withholding cash from poor countries unless they comply, end when negotiations went bad, trade agreements Canada’s negotiator ground out • sanctions: refusal to engage a country; designed to punish a society economically his cigar on a fancy table and • targeted: focus measures on elite/regime; be sure not to punish ordinary people said, “if you do that, it’s like doing this to Canada” • US vs. Haiti’s regime (1994); sanction forced Haiti’s regime to step down • worked because US is very rich and influential while Haiti is poor Haiti’s government was • sweeping: deliberately target the whole society for economic punishment overthrown. US couldn’t use force • UK vs. France total trade embargoes during Napoleonic Wars failed cuz Haiti is tiny but densely • US vs. Iraq embargo to force Saddam Hussein to do what they want; didn’t work populated. sanction against Haiti. • force: freeze assets, travel rights, deport coup leader’s daughter. • pin-point: targeted force • war: widespread, direct, “hot” armed conflict trade embargo, no oil, no teachers, no healthcare. Iraq economy shriveled (high Canada-US Relations unemployment), high infant • Canada and US are both realists, though Canada is constrained while US is unconstrained mortality, lots of disease, low • we’re just as self-serving as US, but having a good-guy image augments our power literacy. international community • relationship with US is great cuz we give each other what we want and offer political support viewed US as bullies. US kept • Canada’s goal is to have as close and as rewarding a relationship with the US as possible embargoes there even after Hussein obeyed. • US is our only neighbour and they’re a very very powerful country • trade with US counts for 30% of Canada’s GDP • Canada has a consulate in every American city over 500k people • help raise Canada’s profile in US (help Canadian businesses, Canadians in US...) • Canada wants US money, resources, businesses, services • hide our goal by helping UN, poor countries, retaining links to UK, recognizing Cuba... • US don’t think much of us • trade with Canada counts for 5% of US GDP; big trade partners: China, Japan, Europe for the past 40 years, US • US wants us to increase our national defence Ambassador in Canada’s job was • think that we’re free-riding on their national defence to tell us to increase our national • want a peaceful, boring, nice country on their northern border defence. • contrast with Mexico (illegal immigration, drugs, narco state); may become failed state • want to keep up free trade so that they can get our natural resources and sell us stuff • Canada has the most per capita fresh water in the world; US’s need for water grows • if we start selling them water, we can’t stop and they’ll suck us dry (high population) • arctic sovereignty: not sure who owns what in the Arctic • hostile weather has kept resources inaccessible, but global warming is freeing it up • Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Canada, US fighting for potentially the biggest oil stash 6 INTST101 - 002 Orend International Law • foreign policy = realism while international law = idealism (more recent) • make international relationships orderly, predictable, rewarding, rational, mutually beneficial • treaty: contract between countries; gold standard of international law Thirty Years War (TYW) arose • began with the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) that ended the Thirty Years War (1618 - 1648) due to Protestant Reformation • “modus vivendi”: way of living (started by Martin Luther) • deal that isn’t anybody’s ideal, but everyone can live with it sweeping across Europe. • each country decides what religion they’ll support and stop invading others • first expression of the modern value of tolerance • Treaty of Westphalia established the two core principles of international law • political sovereignty: right of a country to rule themselves free from foreign interference provided that they respect other countries’ right to do the same • make treaties for themselves and decide on their laws, religion, language... • territorial integrity: countries need place to exercise their political sovereignty • countries have the right to their territory; others can’t invade and take their stuff Treaties • bilateral treaties: involve only 2 countries • Kennedy Free Trade Agreement between Canada and US; NORAD about aerospace protection between Canada and US against Russia originally • multilateral treaties: involve 2 or more countries • regional: coherent geographical space; usually no more than 3 countries involved • collective security: NATO (US, Canada, W. Europe vs. Soviet); all must respond • global: extremely difficult to manage since countries don’t agree; UN 1. problem or opportunity (free trade, threat) 2. fact finding, proposals, counter-proposals 3. negotiation, deal making, treaty drafting (often fail here) 4. formal signing ceremony (agree to bring it back and try to get it passed) 5. take signed treaty back to home country 6. introduce treaty as a bill in domestic law-making process 7. treaty becomes law if it’s passed 8. treaty is ratified 9. grace period before enforcement to allow people to switch over 10.enforcement: real law enforced both domestically and internationally • international treaty becomes law when every nation that signed it makes it law • climate change treaties usually fail because China doesn’t want to limit its industrial growth and US doesn’t want to limit their car use or lose its edge against China • if great powers opt-out, no other countries want to sign on; can’t force their hand • rogue regimes may be determined enough to break the law; can’t do anything • self-interest in keeping treaties: good reputation, looks good, get what they want • promise-keepers punish defectors through non-cooperation and sanctions • institutions created by treaties to ensure compliance; panels facilitate negotiations • 3 types of treaties: • technical treaties: little political controversy, every government has interest, easy to pass, very successful; mail, organized crime, international flights, phone/radio • commercial/economic treaties: high potential for profit, high success rates, some controversy; natural resources, trade, intellectual property, international taxation, MNC 7 INTST101 - 002 Orend • political treaty: hard to achieve, low rate of success, lots of political controversy; regional government, global government, war/peace, borders, HR, religion, climate United Nations • founded in 1945 post-WW2; 2 ndattempt at global governance (League of Nations, WW1) • ambitious goals: UN has been unsuccessful in meeting them so far • prevent war and secure international peace • realize everyone’s human rights • develop the global south • realistic goals: UN is very successful in meeting its more realistic goals • only place where all countries can get together and talk about common problems • collect data about a range of global issues such as GDP, health, education • structure of the UN: • general assembly: legislative body; most inclusive group; only national governments • every country gets to vote, no country has veto power, majority (Global South) rules • GA sets UN budget; GA resolutions are non-binding recommendations • security council: exclusive, 15 members (5 permanent, 10 non-permanent) • US, France, China, UK, Russia (permanent for power post-WW2) get veto power • resolutions of the SC are binding on all; few resolutions due to differing opinions • can declare a threat to international peace; structure a response to the threat or not st • peacekeeping: keep the peace until final negotiations; low hostility; high success 1 peacekeeping force made • peacemaking: UN tries to stop hot war; UN’s military stuff are donated (useless, old) by Canada. Egypt was trying to nationalize the Suez Canal but UK • proposals to reform SC due to exclusivity always fail; big 5 don’t want to lose power and France opposed. Lester B. • world court: international court of justice; can only deal with cases brought voluntarily Pearson made peacekeeping • cannot pass, but not enforce judgement if countries don’t agree to what the WC says force. Suez Canal is a path from Europe to Saudi Arabia. UN • economic and social council: improve socio-economic condition mostly in Global South peacekeeping force put itself • technical agency, narrow mandate; many subsidiary organizations (UNICEF) between the UK/France force and • secretariat: UN civil service; head of the secretariat is the Secretary General Egypt force and negotiate. UK/ • Secretary General can force SC to discuss an issue; can’t force/introduce a resolution France paid off Nasser (Egypt) to • autonomous agencies: self-regulatory with narrow technical mandates (successful) keep Suez Canal international • World Trade Organization: promote free trade worldwide through tariff reductions • World Health Organization: promote health; helped eliminate smallpox European Union • 500m people, 27 countries, 16 countries using the Euro; biggest trading bloc in the world • Europe destroyed after WW1, WW2, Franco-Prussian War so war had to stop • must tie French & German economies together; insane to attack each other • joining done in baby steps starting with technical issues • coal and steel were necessary for the reconstruction of Europe • [1950] small French-German free-trade agreement; Holland, Belgium, Italy soon joined • membership 1. European 2. free-market economy 3. stable democracy 4. rule of law 5. human rights 6. financial fitness 7. committed to the EU law • Turkey constantly rejected (Ottoman, not European; Arab/Islamic, not Catholic/Christian) 8 INTST101 - 002 Orend • financial fitness criteria changes (less strict) every time there’s a crisis • debt must be below a certain % of GDP • deficit (annual national loss; add up to national debt) must be a certain % of budget • controversy is that some member countries consistently pass debt and deficit cap • Italy has poorly managed finances, corruption...; big problem if Italy defaults • sovereign debt: nation-state has too much debt, can’t make the payments, defaults • “have” countries (Germany, France, Holland, UK, Scandinavia) bail out “have nots” gives have-not-countries no • when a country defaults, nobody else lends money unless with conditionality incentive to work hard; always someone to bail them out • conditionality: big public expenditure cuts, increased revenue, increased tax • stop gap: have-countries bail out have-not-countries just to prevent economic downturn • how bad is the sovereign debt (Greece/Spain/Ireland/Portugal); will Germany still bail out • 5 pillars of the EU 1. free-trade area: tariff-free flow of goods/services across borders within EU put all EU countries on equal 2. customs union: single common tariff when trading with external countries footing when trading externally 3. common market: free movement of labour/capital; mobility rights; no discrimination no discrimination, no 4. common currency: 16 countries use Euro; no need to switch currencies at each border boundaries; people can work • England kept pound; cost of changing currency is worth being free of have-nots anywhere, labour invested anywhere 5. central bank: located in Frankfurt, Germany • monetary policy (money supply, interest rates) controlled by EU while fiscal policy (government expenditures, taxes) set individually by countries • deflation is a sign of stagnant economy • consumers don’t buy, producers cut prices; consumers don’t buy, expecting more cuts • don’t want investments and houses to lose value • inflation is bad too because it becomes too expensive for people to buy • cut into savings because the money saved buys less every year • inflation rates target is between 1 - 3% • political integration Romania used it to improve • common passport roads, connect railways, improve • equalization of standard of living across EU; EU equalization money is free cash standard of living • common agricultural policy: all EU governments must give the same agricultural subsidy used to take up 60% of EU • food is necessary so they don’t want to depend on other countries for imports budget • farmers are very politically active; vote for those who give them more subsidies • Global South lacks money for subsidies; can’t export their food; stop free trade • structure of the EU ‣ European Parliament: sets the overall budget; seats divided by party, not by country ‣ European Council: accountability; heads of state form a council court is real; rulings are ‣ European Court of Justice: HQ in Luxembourg; interprets EU law effective; ‣ European Commission: HQ in Brussels (Belgium); does all the work for the EU • draft laws, then sends them to the EP • technocracy: not voted, but hired; must be highly technologically skilled to be chosen ‣ member countries: fund everything • successes of EU • economic success • no country has ever dropped out; lots of countries lined up to join • political structure is impressive, considering war-soaked history of Europe • rising tensions in EU • sovereign debt crisis: bailing out the have-nots can’t be sustained indefinitely • democratic deficit: countries governed by a remote group (EC) won’t keep accepting it • core members (Eurozone, founding countries) vs. fringe members (lack financial fitness) 9 INTST101 - 002 Orend Human Rights • human rights are the core purpose of UN, criteria for membership to EU • freedom, education, basic necessities, healthcare, security, life • modern human rights movement began after the Holocaust • [1933] Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany in the Nazi party and begins antisemitism • killed 6m, mostly Jews, homosexuals, gypsies (Roma), socialists/communists, Slavs • Hitler’s agenda: grow German economy, conquer territory, “final solution” (kill people) • as he went to conquer territory, Hitler got WW2; used WW2 to fulfill his final solution • gather all the “bad people”; put in labour camps to produce stuff; killed in death camps A. Nazi values: 1. national/ethnic partiality: Germans and Aryans are best 2. discrimination and inequality: all but Aryans should be discriminated for the good of all 3. violence and brutality: use force to intimidate others; part of modus operendi 4. denial of freedom to others: only Nazi freedom; took Jews’ jobs, then physical freedom 5. theft and starvation: took Jews’ bank accounts, then all their possessions; starve them 6. no democracy, no political participation: cancelled elections after Hitler took over 7. non-recognition of others as members/belonging to the group: only insiders matter B. HR values: 1. universality: everybody counts; universal moral concern 2. equality: thick equality (socioeconomic equality), thin equality (non-discrimination) 3. personal security from violence and non-violent respect for persons 4. assertion of freedom for all 5. property and subsistence: water, clothing, shelter, food, subsistence income 6. democracy and political participation 7. social recognition as members/rights-bearer: anti-genocide; everyone has rights • Universal Declaration of Human Rights passed in 1948 by the UN General Assembly • personal security: life, freedom from violence • material subsistence: water, food, shelter, clothes or adequate income to buy these • personal freedom: psychologically necessary to have freedom to pursue our goals • elemental equality: non-discrimination • social recognition: not excluded, belong somewhere, recognized as rights-bearer • ultimate goal is for everyone to live a minimally good life worthy of a human being • justified by positive goal of a happier life/world and the negative duty not to harm • China has linked silence on its terrible HR records with access to its lucrative market Women’s Rights • women’s rights are considered the biggest problem in human rights • fairness: wrongness of inequality, majority of population, also human, just as important • consequences: women will be happier, well-being of children will improve, development • complete change in international aid and development; all the money goes to women • proven that money given to men doesn’t help; corruption, support war, no growth • micro-finance loans: give small amount to finance their business with minimal interest • loans given to women since the
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