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INST 101 Midterm Notes, Lecture and textbook notes, Chapters 1-4

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University of Waterloo
International Studies
Brian Orend

Email: [email protected] Office hours: 4 – 5:30 PM Midterm- October 16: 2 and half hours Final – November 27 due December 5 th12PM noon Chapter 1 International studies – various ways nations/countries relate; economically, military, pollution, culture • Public access 1. South pole (Antarctic; remote from countries, no resources, historical rivalry), 2. international water “high seas” (200 nautical miles from coast) • Garbage floating in middle of pacific ocean • Tragedy of the commons o Things held in common cause assets to decay since no one is responsible for the lost (no incentive to care for common area) 3. Near space (20 miles up) What is a country? 1. Territory (natural resources) a. All countries are national owners of their natural resources; national ownership 2. Population (people) – can be highly unified and similar or a collection of highly diverse groups and individuals (especially in immigrant societies populated by waves of immigrants such as Australia, Britain, Canada, Israel, US) a. MENA b. A state needs core infrastructure (food, water, housing, transportation, clothes, education, health, etc.) 3. Culture (high and low): way of life a. Low culture: daily life/ common habits; what to eat, drink, socialization (language), entertainment, technology, religion b. High culture: represent very best of that society/what’s being passed down and preserved (museums, music of great beauty, beautiful pieces of architecture like Eiffel tower) 4. State (government) a. Nation = people, state = government/ruling people Non-state actors – non-governmental groupings or instritutions • Emerging importance and influencing international studies – (Most important in this course are MNC’s, NGO’s and aid and development charities, social movements or international interest groups, armed forces) o M.N.C (multinational corporations motivated by profit) o Non profit (Charitable) government organizations NGO’s (Free the children) o Social movement (occupy movement/something capturing public’s attention then fades) o Interest groups like social movements but tend to be more highly organized and politically involved (MADD to advocate a message, increase penalty for drunk driving; gun control) o Churches/religious organizations o Media o Armed forces  Terrorist groups – uses violence against civilians instead of military targets to spread fear to further a narrow political agenda  Insurgent forces (groups wanting to overthrow government) – violent overthrow  Private militias (individuals with guns)  PMC [private military company)/mercenaries (soldiers for hire e.g. Akademie)] State (national governments) • Make rules (legislation) then enforce them (executive power; police, military) • Defend society from domestic criminals and foreign invaders • Control membership (immigration) and access (border) • Decide what’s legal and not • Set ground rules for everything • Government have massive money rescuers (via taxation) • Represent that society to the rest of the world • Decide on war and peace, economic and social policies, build infrastructure, respond to public emergencies (like diseases) and have huge impact on our lives How did states form and then spread? How did the current state of international affairs (interstate system) come into existence? 1. First formed in Europe 2. European imperialism to colonialism (1492-1945) 3. To the rest of the world State formation • Formed 200 000 years ago o Humans originated from Africa and spread through Europe o Diaspora: spread of a population o humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers never having one home base but, rather, moving from site to site in the pursuit of animals for food and flight from predators and each other • First human settlement/town formed 10 000 years ago o First agricultural settlement – found in middle east, in the Mesopotamia area in what is now Iraq o Raise their own food instead of chasing it o Permanent settlements offer a range of social, cultural, and economic benefits o First European settlement happened in Greece • Modern state is an attempt to occupy “the best of both worlds” between tiny Greek city-states and huge cosmopolitan empires (e.g. Rome) o Strong sense of belonging in Greek cities (most prominent city-states being Athens, Delphi, Knossos, Marathon, Olympia, Sparta, Thebes. Height of achievement between 600 and 400 BCE); literature, arts  Despite massive accomplishments, never overcame local loyalties to create a national government uniting all Greek- speaking people  Economic instability  Vulnerable to outside force, military weakness (first by Macedonians under Alexander the Great, then Rome’s conquest around 146 BCE) o Roman empire: 500 B.C.E. – 500 A.D./lasted 1000 years Empire **The essence of empire chart figure 1.2 • Colonies obedient to metropole (mother city) o Metropole after natural resources in colonies o “Brain Drain” of the best and brightest people from colonies o Extraction of natural resources o Roman attracted colonies to extract resources and got royalty from the colonies o Metropole conquered colonies but provided protection, political leadership, made investments to facilitate natural resources (built infrastructure) o Some empires offered individuals of colonies citizenship How Roman Empire (cosmopolitan governance) collapsed • Size became too large to govern efficiently • Contained too many groups and existing rivalry (repeated barbarian invasions, especially from what is now Germany) • Later emperors were corrupt and incompetent 500 A.D. – 1500 A.B. formed European nation-state Endured in the Near East, as mentioned, for over a thousand years more (in remodeled form). But in the west, only the Roman Catholic Church survived. Western empire otherwise dissolved into a series of small ethnic groups and tribe- like families, many wars ensued. Not much information survives, so it’s called the Dark Ages. • Created identity, offered same culture, create economies of scale and military protection Global North Global South 25% of humanity 75% of humanity More developed Less developed More… Less… Wealth, health, power, education, technology, urbanized, immigrants, social peace, low crime rate, stab governance, life expectancy More personal happiness Q1: Why has the world come to be split like this? European imperialism yes but others, too. Q2: Does the north owe the south anything to make up for this? Later: aid and development Lenin “logic of imperialism” - Dark ages – Anarchical and bloody existence, dirty and decrepit life. - Europe took major steps backward during the dark ages. 500-1000CE - Ambitious local warlords made attempts to control large pieces of territory, saw the rise of languages such as French, Italian, and Spanish to replace Latin. - Rise of Protestant - National political leaders chose sides in Catholic vs. Protestant. - Religious wars (Thirty Years War 1/3 of Germany killed) - “Solved” by the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) – formed the modern interstate system o Type of deal called modus vivendi – something we can all live with, even if it’s not our preference – agree to disagree, and let live. - Political sovereignty is the right of a group of people to rule themselves - Territorial integrity – a community or country has a right to some livable territory and has ownership of its resources • Ignite war: WW1: 1914-18 UK, FR, Rus v. German, A-H, Turkey, Ottoman (US comes in later to enforce Treaty of Versailles) WW1: o 20 million died o Treaty of Versailles  Breaks up ottoman empire and splits it between Britain and France  Punish Germany WW2 (1939 – 45) o 70 million died in Europe o 1945 = time of decolonization, European countries withdraw from empire  War erupts due to resources taken away by Europeans and fight to replace European empire  USSR and US “wins” WW2 • Erupts in cold war (1945 – 1991); nuclear weapons, engage in proxy wars (Vietnam war 1954-74 = USA vs China and USSR {communism}) • Proxy war: Afghanistan is a lost for the Russia  Global hegemon: America is the Global power Q: Is it true that the age of empire is over? • North vs. South Global (known as the third world countries) o Or known as the west v. global south • Latin American is different as to other world civilizations West vs. rest in terms of civilization (way of life, loosely equals culture) 1. Western Europe & colonies 2. Shared values and way of life a. Individualism i. Everyone counts, have human rights b. Limited, democratic government i. Limit government power/control ii. Governments are selected through elections c. Free market capitalism i. Businesses owned by individual and not the state ii. Innovative due to profit iii. Free market competition, differences in income d. A history of Christianity (though now a separation between church and state) e. Commitment to science and technology to improve people’s lives i. Not always so: Banning of birth control pills in certain countries f. Urbanization i. Expansion of cities g. Robust ‘civil society’ activity – all associations of people that are not official government groupings or institutions, business – churches, sports teams and volunteer organizations to NGOs i. In non-democratic, un-elected authoritarian regimes: Censoring the Internet Free market capitalism: economic system that... 1. Allows private property ownership 2. Entrepreneurial rights – and keep some profits 3. Encourage free market, trading between buyer and seller 4. Use money as means of exchange 5. Court system of public laws for peaceful handling, and non violent resolution, of economic disputes - Opposite to communism where state owns and controls everything - There are individual characteristics and western societies don’t fulfill them perfectly. Nor are these ideals immune from criticism as ideals e.g. individualism, capitalism and for religious rep. church and state Relevance of Civilizational Differences: Huntingdon on “The Clash of Civilizations” - Cold War (1945-91) USA and USSR o Both biggest winners of WWII but completely different social systems o No hot war exchanges, but many proxy wars in the developing world. “proxies” = pawns  Vietnam (1954-74) and Afghanistan (1979-89), and others throughout Latin America and Southeast Asia o Did not engage directly because both nuclear powers, fear of total destruction (Mutually assured destruction [MAD]) o US won the Cold War eventually because Russia could not keep up with US military spending, USSR’s citizens want to participate in their own governance o Soviet Union broke apart and reconstructed completely along more Western, free-market, democratic lines - The further apart on values, and the closer together geographically, more likely war breaks out - He predicted that the next huge wars fought would be between the Arab world and Islamic civilization over different civilizational values - West v. middle eastern/Arab/Islamic civilization MENA/ Islamic civ. And west 1. Crusades (1000 A.D. – 1300A) a. Drive Islam back as it spreads into Europe 2. Empire  Euro Empire a. MENA colonized: UK & France 3. Oil a. MENA has a lot of oil and west wants it for an industrialized economy b. For transportation etc. - Next cold war might be with the West and Islamic nations o Replacing each other’s shared values and way of life American Empire Most Americans: no way; US was formed in revolt against empire - Any such accusation is bitter jealousy re: U.S. global success - Americans argue that U.S. is more than just an empire - US is the global hegemon (world’s most powerful country) Revisionists: there’s another way of looking at US. History (empire from start) - Formal empire vs. informal empire o US is not formally labeled as an empire but has the characteristics of an imperial core  Disproportion of military in the world  Top economy  Politically most influential  Biggest consumer base in terms of per capita spending  Magnet for immigrants  Cultural influence: 80% of internet content comes from the states o More formal aspects of empire. US currently operates 700 military bases outside its own borders.  Once continent filled up, American growth spread over into Alaska and Hawaii  After WWII Germany and Japan  All over the globe now, especially in Middle East to secure oil supply - Dominant group from the past and still now: old rich white guys. Pushed other groups aside in their own interest. - Aboriginals were never seen as equals - Women were announced as “individuals” in 1920 - Slavery Whether US is an Empire of a Global Hegemon, what are the consequences for the world? 1. Good: Wolfowitz etal a. US is a global cop and project huge military power on the world to stabilize forces in the world. Prevents Earth from sliding back into anarchy b. US can run a economy and rising living standards c. Leading western country thus, holds “great” values such as human rights, individual freedom, free markets, democracy, free and fair elections, separation of church and state, growth of science and technology 2. Bad: Chomsky a. Believes US is an empire and governed by an elite group which governs the country to benefit themselves (the East Coast power, finance, industry, and money barons) b. All empires are bad because it is found from force c. American empire is uniquely bad because they show no concern for outsiders 3. Could be good, currently bad: Ferguson a. E.g. intervening with Vietnam war without knowing what it’s really about b. World can benefit from the dominating country i. Provide stability, technological innovation c. But American empire is currently bad because it refuse to admit it’s an empire and exercising its power properly i. Young and ambitious individuals back in British empire times competed for government positions and wanted to do well ii. Young and ambitious individuals today don’t care for the outside world and they only want to make it; Washington, L.A. END of chapter 1 Chapter 2 Population: - It will level off to 10 billion by 210 o Rapid population growth from Global South while in the west is flat  The richer you are, the less children you will have  Global south will become richer from constant development o All the population growth is from the global south (consistent annual population growth of at least 3 percent) o While slowest-growing populations have had negative population growth from people leaving for better work opportunities China - Institutes one child per couple o Pro:  Worked and population has worked reliably under 1% o Con  Anti-natalist (Anti-birth) /population control  Unfairness  Discrimination against girls  Population imbalance  Individual rights India - No prohibition on kids - Democracy: individual rights - Education (sex) focused on young girls 6-10 o Doesn’t seem to be working o Discriminatory against girls since males should take responsibility as well - Aggressive natalist policies Anti-natalist vs pro-natalist Pro-natalist: payments, tax breaks, citizenship breaks, baby bonus, daycare help, extreme: proscribe (ban) birth control in Muslim countries Anchor baby: given citizenship to babies born in the country like Canada or U.S. Fast vs. slow growing countries - Immigrants (leaving voluntarily; seeking for a better life) vs. refugees (leaving involuntarily) persecution, war, insecure future o Con of refugees: drain of resources, conflict with locals o Refugees are citizens of no country  United Nations High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR) lobbies UN member countries to ensure refugees receive decent treatment from receiving countries (granted asylum) until they manage to find a new home  Refugees + Internally displaced persons (IDPs) = worldwide population of concern o Majority of refugees are from Africa o Refugees want to become immigrants  But refugees do not exhibit any qualities of immigrants which countries look for (i.e. point system) o Example: French head scarf ban to enforce secularity in its public schools - Migrant workers o Come in to work for a specific period of time in an industry o Seasonal employment o Agricultural prices would increase without cheap migrant workers o Hard to measure amount of migrant workers because most are illegal immigrants o US has extended amnesties for illegal migrant workers which could qualify an illegal immigrant for legal immigrant status if they worked one full season in the US o Cracking down on illegal immigrants could do more damage to the economy than good - Distribution/density o Spread and concentration of population - Urbanization o Growth of cities (group of individuals more than 100 000) o 51% world population live in cities History: started with industrial revolution • Revolution because it’s a complete and sudden change • Began in early 1700s • Focus on machines Agrarian economy: • Agriculture • Handicraft (low-scale, manual labour, intense production • 1 person completes the whole good themselves Inventors (1700s) • Invented agricultural machinery that can replace people, produce people, and often better quality o E.g. steam engine o Cotton gin o Farmers moved to cities with more job opportunities • 1750: o Created urban farms consisting of factories which needed people to operate them  Rationalize production Urbanization: importance cities Pro • Linked historically with modernization, industrialization and diversification, secularization, female liberation • Better social services (healthcare, education, entertainment, poverty management) • Greater socio-economic opportunities o Corporations, great rewards, job opportunities • Don’t have to be bad for environment (up, not out) o Building cities up, not out to save outline space Con • Comes at expense of rural way of life rural flight – people leave the country in the hope of finding better opportunities in the city • Takes over wild space/environment • Concentration of human problems (noise, crime, traffic, garbage, gridlock, overcrowding, sprawl, pollution) • Huge management problems (transportation, infrastructure) CSRs (City-State Regions) • Growing in globalization o Becoming engine of economic growth o Cities are becoming more important than nations due to globalization • Almost mini empire-periphery things • GTA has half of Ontario’s population and half of Ontario’s economy; also 25% of all Canada’s economy The Nation/Country – Striving towards 1. Global Economy 2. Growth of Cities Urbanization • C.S.Rs example: Toronto • Paris is the boldest international example of this; it dominates the tone of life in France. • Urbi est orbi: The city IS the world The Creative City Service; products of creativity. Needed, especially in developed world to counter-act shift to developing world manufacturing. Manufacturing • hub of developed economies • gradually moving from developed economies to developing world o China  labour-power (quantity; cheap)  tipping point – quality  No competing with them because efficient cash-basis 1) Substantial creative class (30% of a city’s workforce) (gets paid to think) ex. Professionals, doctors, accountants, lawyers, scientists, engineers, high-tech people 2) Creative economy – inventive white collar work focused on services that improve quality of life, and/or difficult-to-design value-added goods (ex. Education or medical advice, software, tv programs, internet applications) 3) Creative, pleasing city conditions • Not industrial/brown-fields making them green • Dense (building up, not out), (not urban sprawl) cocooning and public transit • Greenery and natural beauty • Tolerance + diversity / social peace • Examples in CDA/USA/world • Talent, Technology & Tolerance • Eg. London is very tolerant and diverse. Toronto, Vancouver, San Francisco, Seattle, etc. Peak Oil Theory M.K. Hubbard 1970 1) Oil Production has reached its peak (Nature’s not making new oil) 2) Easy Oil – Close to the ground, quite clean, don’t need to refine it, easy to access. (stick a straw in the ground, suck it up and it’s easy to go) Ex. Saudi Arabia Difficult oil – Remote, hard to access, not clean (mixed with other stuff like sand), extremely expensive to remove the sand. Ex. Canada and Russia USA: 1850-1920 between this year was the largest oil producer of oil in the world. But they reached peak of oil production and exhausted the easy oil. Then they started chasing difficult oil. Trying to access easy oil in Saudi and also talking about tapping into Canada’s oil. 3. So, oil production has peaked, but demand is only going to increase -> Population growth + Industrialization of Global South -> therefore Price increases (every product is transported to us so once the price of gas goes up, price of everything goes up) -> Result: ‘70s style “stagflation” & misery (Back to the future O.P.E.C & crisis) i. Made in 1973 and is a cartel and major supply ii. 1986, western started talking about solar power. So they drastically increased the supply and decreased the price (to keep everyone’s interest in the oil) ->Inflation: Price goes up / Growth -> Can jack up interest rates to control inflation (but leads to recession because nobody is spending) Interest rate was 22% in the 80s -> Price goes down / Recession -> Gov’t spends (but this makes inflation worse) Clash of Environmental Perspectives Transition from Human Population to Natural Environment Neo-Malthusians believe that the incredible growth of the human population cannot be sustained and that soon enough, humans will be too many in number for the planet to feed, water, clothe, and house us all. Pessimist 1) Population + Industrialization • Increased Oikkytuib = Exceeding Earth’s “Carrying Capacity” • Industrialization is causing too much poolution • (Malthus; Lovelock’s “Gaia”) the whole earth is one interconnected organism. Our role on this planet has become corrupted so that we’re an insipid cancer in the mother organism Gaia. • Eg. Easter Island – Thousand years ago, the island was fertile and flourishing with tonnes of natural resources. It had two groups that hated each other. They decided to go to war. A venomous civil war broke out and this war caused them to completely consume every resource on this island to use in war. As a result they totally completely stripped the island and every single person on the island died either of war or starvation. Pessimists argue that this will be replicated on a larger scale in the world. 2) For every solution, still huge problems & failed laws (Eg. Kyoto Protocol & climate change) • Temperature has been going up and the cause is due to industrialization and population increase (emitting CO2 which heats up earth that causes flooding. Diseases will spread north, overall instability) • Kyoto Protocol was a treaty created to have every country cut down on CO2 emission • Failed because two countries did not want to partipate: China and USA. • They questioned the science because they saw it as a way to tax their industrialization 3) If technology is so great, how come such huge problems like food supply and water? • 1B people don’t have enough food for their stage of development • 1B “water poor” -> people who have at most 5 litres of water a day. (Canadian use 320L a day, Americans use 360L a day) 4) Yes, but people don’t always follow such reasons & incentives. 5) These environmental agencies are under-resourced (four years behind in pollution monitoring) • Trophy Law –Pass all the laws you want, but are they enforced? Most environmental laws are just for show. 6) North vs. South, no cooperation, bleak, peak oil future. The people that care about environment is the North and Europe. Europe has very effective environmental laws. South cares about economy more. Optimist 1) Pessimists under-estimated a. Nature’s resiliency b. Our ingenuity - Earth is not Easter Island 2) Problems can and have been solved (eg. Montreal Protocol & ozone) -> Protocol required countries to stop producing CFCs (was used in fridges but alternate way of making fridges was discovered) Very successful and now the ozone layer shows robust signs of springing back. a. Brazil & deforestation i. Holds the Amazon rainforest which is a huge carbon sink. ii. Is their only natural resource so the world ended up paying them to not cut it down b. Rachel Carson & “Silent Spring” i. As she grew up she looked forward to listening to songbirds returning in the Spring ii. She discovered that D.D.T’s were a chemical farmers used. This chemical was so corrosive that it would burn through the bird’s eggs. DDT’s were banned, songbirds returned. 3) Lombard on technology (Eg. The Green Revolution, Electric Car) a. The green revolution occurs 1945-85 “Technology Transfer” North- >South international aid, focused on agriculture. They shared technology such as irrigation, better forms of pesticides, dealing with diseases. b. World food production triples as a result of this 4) So many reasons/incentives for everyone to care. Governments, corporations, and people. 5) Good Environment agencies, nation and international. Ex. The agency that banned DDT. WWF. 6) As south develops, they’ll want a cleaner world; new alternatives will be found. END of chapter 2 Chapter 3 – Comparative Culture Conservatism - Organic view of society – one big organism, government’s role is to further the thriving of this unified, organic being. - Positive role for the state: government should be actively involved in culture, economy, and education. (top-down approach) - Very patriotic and nationalistic - Often religious and maintain and acceptance of inequality - Other-serving obligation of the elites towards all of society Liberalism - Atomistic view of society – society is nothing more than the individuals it comprises - Negative role for the state: gov’t has less involvement - Governments often violate personal freedom, so liberals are keen on keeping gov’t intervention to an absolute minimum - “night-watchman” view of the state: keep peace, protect us, uphold property rights, and otherwise stay out of our lives - Classical liberalism (neo-liberalism) – opposed to gov’t funding for healthcare, education, and culture; state intervention in economy; using tax revenues to provide services beyond the minimal list - Acceptance of inequality. Liberals are more tolerant than conservatives regarding social difference of all kinds (moral, sexual, religious differences) - Less patriotic and more cosmopolitan (global) in outlook - Looks less to the past and more to the future and opportunities Socialism - Began as a reaction against classical liberalism and the industrial revolution - Slums appeared in cities because of the flood of factory workers - Rejects of the kind of inequality that conservatives and liberals feel comfortable with - Organic view of society, but firm conviction that too much inequality is both wrong in itself and harmful - Favour political and economic equality - Liberal equality is not enough, must share resources - Positive view of the state: gov’t can enforce equal distribution of resources - Look at the past with brutality; must overcome Democratic Socialism – moderate socialist goals are pursued through democratic means (free elections result in a mandate from people to raise taxes to pay for publicly funded programs) Scientific Socialism – engage in direct and violent revolution to overthrow existing governments, destroy privately owned property and creation of publicly owned, state-run factories and farms Welfare Liberalism - Combine liberalism with socialism - Democracy - Capitalism and free market - Legal and broader social commitment to everyone’s human rights - Soften the worse socio-economic inequalities – welfare state, and constructing social safety net - Constructed in response to three major historical events o Great Depression of 1930’s – Roosevelt’s New Deal included gov’t spending which improved the economy o WWII – increase in state intervention to organize the resources towards objective of winning the war o The return of a huge wave of veteran soldiers after WWII – in favour of the welfare state, felt they were owed something by the countries they’d fought for 1) High tech and global digital divide 2) World religions and two major conflicts 3) International biz culture Communications Revolution -> huge, sudden increase (internet/wireless) 1) Very First Computers -> ‘40s & ‘50s • Could they communicate? • Military applications (Internet began as military invention, GPS, microwave, cell phones, nuclear, helicopter) 2) DARPA -> ARPANET/first computer network NSF (National Science Foundation) -> NSFNET (world’s first e-mail) CERN (based in Geneva) -> Euro -Time Berners-Lee -“www” -wrote html -60s-80s 3) Privatization • Early ‘90s • Al Gore – US. VP. – he auctioned off NSF NET • NSF NET sold off • Private ISP • ’92 1 million people on the internet • 2012: 2 billion people on the internet • High tech -> is the water. We’re the fish • World population is 7 billion, so 5 billion without internet access “Global Digital Divide” -> Split between North vs. South on tech access. • South miss out on: communication with friends, jobs, finances, health, economy, day planner, weather -> agriculture • Online training and education programs • E-medicine people use the Internet to access health information and to consult directly with medi
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