Study guide for 101
Balance: ability to keep com over the bos.
Factors that contribute to balance
- Strength - vision
-muscle coordination - touch
- Flexibility - kinesthetic awareness
- vestibular feedback - cognitive factors
- medical conditions
Sensory systems involved in balance:
Eyes, ears, vestibular apparatus, somatosensory system (touch and proprioception), taste,
Sensory systems that contribute directly are visual, vestibular and somatosensory Vision:
Rods and cones: special nerve ending or sensory receptors in the back of our eyes provide the
brain with visual cues that aid in balance. Sensitive to light.
Role of vision:
- tell us where our bodies are in space and where we are in relation to other objects.
- Provides info about the mvt of the head in relation to other objects in the environment.
Vision and vestibular system work together by comparing velocity and rotation from the
vestibular system with actual visual info
The inner ear organs send signals to the brain about head and body mvts relative to gravity.
Endolymph: sacs filled with fluids in the ear.
Perilymph: Around the outside of the sacks.
Vestibular apparatus: part of the inner ear that has to do with balance. Located next to the
- Composed of 3 semicircular canals utricle and saccule
How it works
The semicircular canals are located in diff planes in space and each has a sensory receptor
attached to it. When the head is moved in the direction in which the canal is located, the
endolumpatic fluid w/in that canal is bent that sends impulses to the brain. A properly functioning
system will have the two sides sending symmetrical impulses to the brain to help w balance. Somatosensory input
Consists of two parts: touch and proprioception
- provides feedback t the nervous system regarding positioning in space body sway and
changes in terrain. This info allows the muscles and joints to make auto adjustments to maintain
balance and avoid falls.
Adaptable hierarchy: weighing of sensory inputs can vary depending on the individual the task
and the environment. Some inputs are weighed more than others are and some are prioritized.
Test used to measure balance
We used the mCTSIB to evaluate balance. Stands for Modified clinical test of sensory
integration on balance.
mCTSIB: looks at how well a patient can integrate various senses with respect to balance and
how he/she compensated when condition when one or more of those senses are compromised.
- 30 s trial is timed for one of four conditions where the patient has to maintain the position to
the best of their ability.
- A max of 3 trials are performed and if more than one is req the total score is an average of all 3
-Low time shows difficulty in that specific system for that condition.
Assessment of functional aspects of mobility. Look at functional abilities such as sit to stand and
transfers but does not id the quality of mvt or the cause of the balance deficit.
- One of the most widely used test for Low functional mobility.
- Focuses in reaching, bending, tranfering, and standing.
- put of a total 56 points if u score more than 45 it indicated very low risk of falling
Components of a complete balance assessment
- Subjective assessment
-Functional mobility and functional gait assessment
-The musculoskeletal assessment
-Sensory organization for balance
Measurement error: Component of reliability. Can happen if -The instrument is inaccurate
- tester performs measurement improperly
- reads the value incorrectly of records the wrong value.
All these can cause a decrease in reliability.
Flexibility: is defined as the ROM in a joint or series of joints that reflects the ability of the
muscle and tendon structures to get longer within the physiological limitations of the joint.
Two basic types:
Static: measuring the rom while the body is held static in its extended position. This is the type
most commonly measured.
Dynamic : refers to resistance to motion in a joint that will affect how easily and quickly a joint
can move through a rom. Important when considering athletic performance and the health or
disease condition of joints. Cannot measure
Flexibility is important for:
- muscle relaxation/proper posture/ relief of muscle soreness.
Exercise is important for :
- Prep for activity, which will enhance performance/ decrease likely hood of injury
Flexibility if influenced by joint structure, soft tissues surrounding the joint, type of activity,
gender, age and temperature.
Direct measurement: measure angular displacement (degrees). performed using a
-angle is measured at the extreme rom for ext or flex. ROM is the diff b/w the angles measured.
- can be done actively or passively. Passively usually have greater ROM
Indirect measurement: linear measurement of distance b/w segments or from ad external
object i.e. sits and reaches
Examines whether or not you obtain the same result for the same measurement. Good reliability
= low fluctuation Validity:
Validity is dependent on reliability. Concerned with what the value is telling you. Height tells us
how tall u is but not urn age weight etc.
Anthropometry and Body Composition
Physique: Composed of your body size, tructure and composition. These are separate yet
interrelated aspects of the body.
Body size: volume, mass, length and surface area of the body.
Body structure : refers to the distribution or arrangement of body parts such as skeleton,mscle
and fat distribution
Body composition: refers to the amt of constituents in the body at the atomic, molecular,
ceullular, tissue system and whole body levels
Complete body assessment of physical fitness important
- Body build and especially body comp
-%BF has been linked to potential health risks.
-others nay want to know for sport performance or exercise.
Field test for evaluation body comp:
- Height/weight/skin folds/body diameter/ body circumference
-various combinations have been used to predict body density and therefore body comp
-Most valid : underwater weighing.
-50-70% of Bf is located subcutaneously.
-average is 25% for men and 32% for women to be considered overweigh.
Sloan equation (specific): -developed on a specific pop in South Africa.
- Use a linear equation to predict body density from selected skin fold.
-Pop specific equation is accurate when applied to a similar pop.
Jackson and Pollock (general)
- uses a non-lineal regression equation from sym of various skin folds.
- uses quadratic equation including age and the summ of the skin folds.
- can be used for prediction of bd varying in age and fatness
CPAFLA ( Canadian physical activity fitness and lifestyle appraisal)
- Combination of factors: height/weight/skin folds/anthropometry/age/gender and ratios
-do not measure bf% on the assumption that the underlying assumptions for body fat are not
-amt and distribution of bf are closely related to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, bf% is
waist girth : used to asses fat in the trunk
BMI/SOS5/WC: used to asses body comp
- only participants in the estimated risk zone should be told that they could attain health benefits
from a decrease in total BF or trunk fatness
- no judgement should be made for scores that lie outside the health risk zone
Ideal weight : level at which the individual is healthy feels well and is reasonably happy w their
Skin fold calipers
- Measure thickness of a double fold of skin and subcutaneous adipose.
-pressure of 10g=mm
Mean measure of where the scores tend to concentrate, central tendency. Determined by
summing all the measure in a distribution and then dividing this submit he number of measures,
SD: measure of variability of the original scores.