KIN 155 Study Guide - Final Guide: Resting Potential, Axon Hillock, Electromyography

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KIN 155 Final Review
Friday, December 18 @ 9 am
DC 1350
Lecture 2:
Action Potential
oThe rapid depolarization and hyperpolarization of a membrane potential in an all
or nothing response
oOccurs if the sum of IPSPs (negative Cl-) and EPSPs (positive Ca+) exceeds the
threshold (usually about -55 mv) from the resting membrane potential (baseline,
around -70 mv) at the axon hillock
oAt axon hillock, electrical information converted to chemical information
oAction potential propagates down the axon
oEnters a refractory period (still receiving signals but nothing happens)
Lecture 3:
EMG (lab component)
oSurface electromyography
oMeasurement of electrical activity reflecting the sum of the muscle action
potentials
oRaw EMG – full amplitude
oFull-wave rectified – absolute value (only positive)
oSmoothed – low pass filter (only positive)
Lecture 4:
Generator Potential
oMechanical stimulus (mechanoreceptors) opens protein allowing Na+ to flow in
oCauses a depolarization (EPSP)
oInitiates the action potential
Action Potential
oRapid depolarization and hyperpolarization of a membrane potential
oRequires EPSP to raise the resting potential past threshold
oDepolarization propagates down the axon
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Lecture 5:
Reaction time
oReveals processing time within the nervous system
oTime between the onset of the stimulus and onset of response (EMG)
Movement time
oTime between onset of reaction (EMG) and completion of response (movement)
Response time
oTotal time from onset of stimulus to end of response (RT+MT)
Hick’s Law
oMore choices = increase reaction/decision time
Lecture 6:
Speed accuracy trade-off
oStrategy of slowing down movement speed to increase accuracy (endpoint)
Accuracy depends of width and distance of target
oFitts’ Law
Movement time dependent on amplitude of movement (speed) and the
width of the target
Feedforward
oMotor control that is executed in the absence of sensory inputs (ballistic phase)
Feedback
oMotor control that is guided by sensory inputs
oAbout 200 ms (needs to react to sensory inputs)
Lecture 7:
Dual Task Paradigm
oPerform two task simultaneously (concurrently)
oMeasure performance of primary and secondary task to reveal ‘interference’
oThen measure performance of primary and secondary task at the same time
oUsed to figure out what stage of learning you’re in
Dual-Task Cost
oChange in performance comparing task performed alone and together
oLow dual-task cost = primary task is automatic (or close to)
oHigh dual-task cost = tasks only performed well on their own
Lecture 8:
Inhibitory Reflex
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oActivation of Golgi tendon organ can lead to IPSPs at the alpha motoneurons
Excitatory Reflex
oActivation of Golgi tendon organ can lead to EPSPs at the alpha motoneurons
Lecture 9:
Open Loop Control
oFeedforward – movement planned before execution
oCan be executed without afferent input (no feedback sensory information)
Closed Loop Control
oFeedback – dependent on afferent (sensory) input to control movement
Von Holst – CNS creates expected sensory outcome
oEfferent Copy
A copy of the predicted movement
oCorollary Discharge
Internal representation of the expected sensory consequence of the
movement (internal estimation)
Can be used to determine error in movement execution
(Schmidt) Schema
The motor program contains general rules (open loop) that can be adapted
oGeneralized Motor Program
Representation of a class of movements with invariant features and
flexible parameters
Composed of a network of interneurons in CNS (grey matter)
oInvariant features
Remains constant trail to trail
Order of events (sequence), relative timing (muscle onset), relative force
oFlexible parameters
Can change trail to trail, specific control details a of specific movement
Overall duration, overall force (amplitude), specific muscles used
Lecture 10:
Types of Balance Control
oStatic Stability
Maintaining COM within a fixed BOS (ie. Standing still)
oDynamic Stability
Control of stability when COM is externally distributed and/or when the
BOS is moving (ie. Walking)
oReactive Balance Control
Feedback, compensatory control
Control of stability by reacting to a sensed instability in the environment
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